Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) micro/nano-structuring of photo-resists is systematically studied at the close-to-dielectric-breakdown irradiance. It is demonstrated that avalanche absorption is playing a major part in free electron generation and chemical bond breaking at these conditions. The steps of photo-initiation and chemical bond breaking in propagation of polymerization are altered as compared with photo-polymerization at low-irradiance and one-photon stereo-lithography. The avalanche dominates radical generation and promotion of polymerization at tight focusing and a high ~TW/cm2 irradiance. The rates of electron generation by two-photon absorption and avalanche are calculated for the experimental conditions. Simulation results are corroborated by 3D polymerization in three resists with different photo-initiators at two different wavelengths and pulse durations. The smallest feature sizes of 3D polymerized logpile structures are consistent with spectral dependencies of the two photon nonlinearities. Implications of these findings for achieving sub-100 nm resolution in 3D structuring of photo-polymers are presented.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

Q. Sun, S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Freestanding and movable photonic mi-crostructures fabricated by photopolymerization with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 035004/1–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal diffusivity in femtosecond-laser-structured micro-volumes of polymers,” Appl. Phys. A. 98, 551–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (10)

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express 17, 9515–9525 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Benayas, D. Jaque, B. McMillen, and K. P. Chen, “High repetition rate UV ultrafast laser inscription of buried channel waveguides in sapphire: Fabrication and fluorescence imaging via ruby R lines,” Opt. Express 17, 10076–10081 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Farsari and B. Chichkov, “Materials processing: Two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photon. 3, 450–452 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, K. Justyna, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pikulin and N. Bityurin, “Spatial resolution in polymerization of sample features at nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 195430 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, “Three-dimensional micronanofabrication via two-photon-excited photoisomerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, Y. Nishijima, W. Ebina, H. Misawa, M. Kondo, and V. Švrček, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser fabrication,” ECS Transact. 16, 57–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 051101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (7)

N. Murazawa, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and K. Kamada, “Two-photon excitation of dye-doped liquid crystal by a cw-laser irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 310–319 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional structuring of resists and resins by direct laser writing and holographic recording,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 213, 157–206 (2008).

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vam-vakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Uppal and P. S. Shiakolas, “Modeling of temperature-dependent diffusion and polymerization kinetics and their effects on two-photon polymerization dynamics,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7, 043002 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–222 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-structuring of materials by tightly focused laser radiation,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 81, 411–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241904 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Qi, Y. Li, D. Tan, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Polymerized nanotips via two-photon photopolymerization,” Opt. Express 15, 971–976 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. S. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nano-stereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, V. Jarutis, and H. Misawa, “Feature-size reduction of photopolymerized structures by femtosecond optical curing of SU-8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 024106 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (6)

S. H. Park, S. H. Lee, D.-Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, and K.-S. Lee, “Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Day and M. Gu, “Microchannel fabrication in PMMA based on localized heating by nanojoule high repetition rate femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 5939–5946 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 1–10 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 1999–2006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 1583–1586 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for infrared spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2061–2063 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baldacchini, C. N. LaFratta, R. A. Farrer, M. C. Teich, B. E. A. Saleh, M. J. Naughton, and J. T. Fourkas, “Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6072–6076 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Frohlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 301–303 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kamada, K. Matsunaga, A. Yoshino, and K. Ohta, “Two-photon-absorption-induced accumulated thermal effect on femtosecond Z-scan experiments studied with time-resolved thermal-lens spectrometry and its simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 529–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 361–368 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, T. Lippert, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Dielectric breakdown of rubber materials by femtosecond irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A. 76, 325–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1940 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. Gamaly, A. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Straub and M. Gu, “Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1824–1826 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1, 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. Maruo and K. Ikuta, “Three-dimensional microfabrication by use of single-photon-absorbed polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2656–2658 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. A. Borisov, G. N. Dorojkina, N. I. Koroteev, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, D. V. Malakhov, A. V. Tarasishin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Femtosecond two-photon photopolymerization: a method to fabricate optical photonic crystals with controllable parameters,” Laser Phys. 8, 1105–1105 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 2, 132–134 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, and M. SheikBahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n(2) in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-bahae, A.A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 26, 760–769 (1990).
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1987 (1)

H. J. Eichler, F. Massmann, E. Biselli, K. Richter, M. Glotz, L. Konetzke, and X. Yang, “Laser-induced free-carrier and temperature gratings in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 3247–3253 (1987).
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Arai, A.

Audouard, E.

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, K. Justyna, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
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Baldacchini, T.

T. Baldacchini, C. N. LaFratta, R. A. Farrer, M. C. Teich, B. E. A. Saleh, M. J. Naughton, and J. T. Fourkas, “Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6072–6076 (2004).
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Barlow, S.

M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
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Beljonne, D.

M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
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Benayas, A.

Biselli, E.

H. J. Eichler, F. Massmann, E. Biselli, K. Richter, M. Glotz, L. Konetzke, and X. Yang, “Laser-induced free-carrier and temperature gratings in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 3247–3253 (1987).
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Bredas, J.-L.

M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
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S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
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Cerullo, G.

Chen, K. P.

Chen, L. L.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, “Three-dimensional micronanofabrication via two-photon-excited photoisomerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
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Cheng, G.

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 1–10 (2005).
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M. Farsari and B. Chichkov, “Materials processing: Two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photon. 3, 450–452 (2009).
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A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
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Dorojkina, G. N.

R. A. Borisov, G. N. Dorojkina, N. I. Koroteev, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, D. V. Malakhov, A. V. Tarasishin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Femtosecond two-photon photopolymerization: a method to fabricate optical photonic crystals with controllable parameters,” Laser Phys. 8, 1105–1105 (1998).

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Ebina, W.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, Y. Nishijima, W. Ebina, H. Misawa, M. Kondo, and V. Švrček, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser fabrication,” ECS Transact. 16, 57–63 (2009).
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M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
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Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, F. Massmann, E. Biselli, K. Richter, M. Glotz, L. Konetzke, and X. Yang, “Laser-induced free-carrier and temperature gratings in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 3247–3253 (1987).
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Farrer, R. A.

T. Baldacchini, C. N. LaFratta, R. A. Farrer, M. C. Teich, B. E. A. Saleh, M. J. Naughton, and J. T. Fourkas, “Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6072–6076 (2004).
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Farsari, M.

M. Farsari and B. Chichkov, “Materials processing: Two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photon. 3, 450–452 (2009).
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A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vam-vakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2, 2257–2262 (2008).
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A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
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B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
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Fotakis, C.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
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A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vam-vakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2, 2257–2262 (2008).
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L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
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T. Baldacchini, C. N. LaFratta, R. A. Farrer, M. C. Teich, B. E. A. Saleh, M. J. Naughton, and J. T. Fourkas, “Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6072–6076 (2004).
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Freymann, G. von

J. K. Gansel, K. Justyna, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
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Frohlich, L.

Gadonas, R.

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Two-photon polymerization for fabrication of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures over a large area,” in Proceedings of Micromachining and Micro-fabrication Process Technology XIV (SPIE Proc. 7204, 2009) pp. 72040C/1–11.

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A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
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Gamaly, E.

E. Gamaly, A. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
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Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 361–368 (2003).
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Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, K. Justyna, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
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Gattass, R. R.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
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R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–222 (2008).
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Gershgoren, E.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
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Giakoumaki, A.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
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A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vam-vakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2, 2257–2262 (2008).
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Glotz, M.

H. J. Eichler, F. Massmann, E. Biselli, K. Richter, M. Glotz, L. Konetzke, and X. Yang, “Laser-induced free-carrier and temperature gratings in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 3247–3253 (1987).
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Gong, Q.

Gray, D.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vam-vakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2, 2257–2262 (2008).
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A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
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Gu, M.

Hagan, D.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, and M. SheikBahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n(2) in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-bahae, A.A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 26, 760–769 (1990).
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Hashimoto, T.

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal diffusivity in femtosecond-laser-structured micro-volumes of polymers,” Appl. Phys. A. 98, 551–556 (2010).
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Heikal, A.

M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
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Herman, P.

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
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Houbertz, R.

Hu, Z.

M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
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Hüttman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015–1047 (2005).
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Hwang, H.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
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S. Maruo and K. Ikuta, “Three-dimensional microfabrication by use of single-photon-absorbed polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2656–2658 (2000).
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T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
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Jaque, D.

Jarutis, V.

K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, V. Jarutis, and H. Misawa, “Feature-size reduction of photopolymerized structures by femtosecond optical curing of SU-8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 024106 (2006).
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Juodkazis, S.

Q. Sun, S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Freestanding and movable photonic mi-crostructures fabricated by photopolymerization with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 035004/1–5 (2010).
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J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal diffusivity in femtosecond-laser-structured micro-volumes of polymers,” Appl. Phys. A. 98, 551–556 (2010).
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K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11720–11724 (2009).
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S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, Y. Nishijima, W. Ebina, H. Misawa, M. Kondo, and V. Švrček, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser fabrication,” ECS Transact. 16, 57–63 (2009).
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S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 051101 (2009).
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S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-structuring of materials by tightly focused laser radiation,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 81, 411–448 (2008).
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N. Murazawa, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and K. Kamada, “Two-photon excitation of dye-doped liquid crystal by a cw-laser irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 310–319 (2008).
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S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional structuring of resists and resins by direct laser writing and holographic recording,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 213, 157–206 (2008).

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K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, V. Jarutis, and H. Misawa, “Feature-size reduction of photopolymerized structures by femtosecond optical curing of SU-8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 024106 (2006).
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S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 361–368 (2003).
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K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, T. Lippert, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Dielectric breakdown of rubber materials by femtosecond irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A. 76, 325–329 (2003).
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Justyna, K.

J. K. Gansel, K. Justyna, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
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Kamada, K.

N. Murazawa, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and K. Kamada, “Two-photon excitation of dye-doped liquid crystal by a cw-laser irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 310–319 (2008).
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T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
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S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, Y. Nishijima, W. Ebina, H. Misawa, M. Kondo, and V. Švrček, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser fabrication,” ECS Transact. 16, 57–63 (2009).
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Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 1583–1586 (2005).
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Konetzke, L.

H. J. Eichler, F. Massmann, E. Biselli, K. Richter, M. Glotz, L. Konetzke, and X. Yang, “Laser-induced free-carrier and temperature gratings in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 3247–3253 (1987).
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Kozenkov, V. M.

R. A. Borisov, G. N. Dorojkina, N. I. Koroteev, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, D. V. Malakhov, A. V. Tarasishin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Femtosecond two-photon photopolymerization: a method to fabricate optical photonic crystals with controllable parameters,” Laser Phys. 8, 1105–1105 (1998).

LaFratta, C. N.

T. Baldacchini, C. N. LaFratta, R. A. Farrer, M. C. Teich, B. E. A. Saleh, M. J. Naughton, and J. T. Fourkas, “Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6072–6076 (2004).
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[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, 1986).

Silvestri, S. D.

Stoian, R.

Straub, M.

Stryland, E. W. van

M. Sheik-bahae, A.A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 1–10 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.-B.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, “Three-dimensional micronanofabrication via two-photon-excited photoisomerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Freestanding and movable photonic mi-crostructures fabricated by photopolymerization with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 035004/1–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1, 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

Švrcek, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, Y. Nishijima, W. Ebina, H. Misawa, M. Kondo, and V. Švrček, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser fabrication,” ECS Transact. 16, 57–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, D.

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarasishin, A. V.

R. A. Borisov, G. N. Dorojkina, N. I. Koroteev, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, D. V. Malakhov, A. V. Tarasishin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Femtosecond two-photon photopolymerization: a method to fabricate optical photonic crystals with controllable parameters,” Laser Phys. 8, 1105–1105 (1998).

Teich, M. C.

T. Baldacchini, C. N. LaFratta, R. A. Farrer, M. C. Teich, B. E. A. Saleh, M. J. Naughton, and J. T. Fourkas, “Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6072–6076 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thayumanavan, S.

M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, K. Justyna, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tikhonchuk, V.

E. Gamaly, A. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ueno, K.

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-structuring of materials by tightly focused laser radiation,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 81, 411–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Uppal, N.

N. Uppal and P. S. Shiakolas, “Modeling of temperature-dependent diffusion and polymerization kinetics and their effects on two-photon polymerization dynamics,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7, 043002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vamvakaki, M.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vam-vakaki, M.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vam-vakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[Crossref]

VanStryland, E. W.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, and M. SheikBahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n(2) in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

Viertl, J.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vam-vakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.-F.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, “Three-dimensional micronanofabrication via two-photon-excited photoisomerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, T. Lippert, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Dielectric breakdown of rubber materials by femtosecond irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A. 76, 325–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

J. K. Gansel, K. Justyna, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegst, U. G. K.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-bahae, A.A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, “Three-dimensional micronanofabrication via two-photon-excited photoisomerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xia, H.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, “Three-dimensional micronanofabrication via two-photon-excited photoisomerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamasaki, K.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, T. Lippert, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Dielectric breakdown of rubber materials by femtosecond irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A. 76, 325–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. Y.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. S. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nano-stereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.-Y.

S. H. Park, S. H. Lee, D.-Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, and K.-S. Lee, “Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yang, X.

H. J. Eichler, F. Massmann, E. Biselli, K. Richter, M. Glotz, L. Konetzke, and X. Yang, “Laser-induced free-carrier and temperature gratings in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 3247–3253 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yokota, Y.

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, A.

Zhang, W.-Y.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, “Three-dimensional micronanofabrication via two-photon-excited photoisomerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A. M.

R. A. Borisov, G. N. Dorojkina, N. I. Koroteev, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, D. V. Malakhov, A. V. Tarasishin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Femtosecond two-photon photopolymerization: a method to fabricate optical photonic crystals with controllable parameters,” Laser Phys. 8, 1105–1105 (1998).

ACS Nano (1)

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vam-vakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional structuring of resists and resins by direct laser writing and holographic recording,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 213, 157–206 (2008).

Appl. Phys. A (3)

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 1–10 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 1583–1586 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A. (2)

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, T. Lippert, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Dielectric breakdown of rubber materials by femtosecond irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A. 76, 325–329 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal diffusivity in femtosecond-laser-structured micro-volumes of polymers,” Appl. Phys. A. 98, 551–556 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 361–368 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. Maruo and K. Ikuta, “Three-dimensional microfabrication by use of single-photon-absorbed polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2656–2658 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, V. Jarutis, and H. Misawa, “Feature-size reduction of photopolymerized structures by femtosecond optical curing of SU-8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 024106 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, “Three-dimensional micronanofabrication via two-photon-excited photoisomerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241904 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. H. Park, S. H. Lee, D.-Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, and K.-S. Lee, “Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, K. Ueno, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional micro- and nano-structuring of materials by tightly focused laser radiation,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 81, 411–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

ECS Transact. (1)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, Y. Nishijima, W. Ebina, H. Misawa, M. Kondo, and V. Švrček, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser fabrication,” ECS Transact. 16, 57–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electr. (2)

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, and M. SheikBahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n(2) in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-bahae, A.A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electr. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. Rumi, J. Ehrlich, A. Heikal, J. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Bredas, “Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500–9510 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 051101 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Baldacchini, C. N. LaFratta, R. A. Farrer, M. C. Teich, B. E. A. Saleh, M. J. Naughton, and J. T. Fourkas, “Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6072–6076 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS (1)

N. Uppal and P. S. Shiakolas, “Modeling of temperature-dependent diffusion and polymerization kinetics and their effects on two-photon polymerization dynamics,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 7, 043002 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Q. Sun, S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Freestanding and movable photonic mi-crostructures fabricated by photopolymerization with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, 035004/1–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laser Chem. (1)

A. Ovsianikov, A. Gaidukeviciute, B. N. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. D. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Two-photon polymerization of hybrid sol-gel materials for photonics applications,” Laser Chem. 2008, ID 493059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

R. A. Borisov, G. N. Dorojkina, N. I. Koroteev, V. M. Kozenkov, S. A. Magnitskii, D. V. Malakhov, A. V. Tarasishin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Femtosecond two-photon photopolymerization: a method to fabricate optical photonic crystals with controllable parameters,” Laser Phys. 8, 1105–1105 (1998).

Macromol. Res. (1)

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. S. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nano-stereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. Murazawa, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and K. Kamada, “Two-photon excitation of dye-doped liquid crystal by a cw-laser irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 310–319 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1, 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (2)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–222 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Farsari and B. Chichkov, “Materials processing: Two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photon. 3, 450–452 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

E. Gamaly, A. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949–957 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. J. Eichler, F. Massmann, E. Biselli, K. Richter, M. Glotz, L. Konetzke, and X. Yang, “Laser-induced free-carrier and temperature gratings in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 3247–3253 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Pikulin and N. Bityurin, “Spatial resolution in polymerization of sample features at nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 195430 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, K. Justyna, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

C. A. Mack, Optical Lithography, (SPIE Field Guides, vol. FG06, SPIE Press, Bellingham, 2006).
[Crossref]

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Two-photon polymerization for fabrication of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures over a large area,” in Proceedings of Micromachining and Micro-fabrication Process Technology XIV (SPIE Proc. 7204, 2009) pp. 72040C/1–11.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, London, 2nd ed., 2003).

Y. P. Raizer, Laser-induced discharge phenomena (Consultant Bureau, New York, 1977).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, 1986).

K. Kamada, “Characterization of two-photon absorption and its resonance enhancement by z-scan method,” in Proceedings of Nonlinear Optical Transmission and Multiphoton Processes in Organics II, (SPIE Proc. 5516, 2004), pp. 97–105.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of the pure resist SZ2080 (a), uncoated cover glass, resist with 2 wt% of Irgacure 369 (Irg.) and 4,4’ -bis(diethylaminobenzo phenone) (Bis.) in (c) and (d), respectively. The wavelength of PLE maximum, λabs max as x, corresponds to the most efficient in-bulk energy delivery required for the 3D structuring of chosen resists. Artifacts due to different orders of diffraction appear as slanted lines on the PLE maps; 0 th -order diffraction is marked in (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Functional dependencies of the TPA coefficient, β, and nonlinear refractive index, n 2 on the normalized photon energy determined by the polynomial functions G 2 and F 2, respectively [22].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of the first (a) and second (b) layer of 3D photo-polymerized logpile structures in SZ2080 resist with 2wt.% Irg. Polymerization was carried out by 800 nm/150 fs pulses of 5.2 nJ (at focal spot) focused by an objective lens of NA = 1.42 at the corresponding maximum intensity I 0 = 18.7 TW/cm2. (c) Spiral recorded at 2 nJ or I 0 = 7.2 TW/cm2. Scale bars, 1 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The smallest width of a photo-polymerized log vs the ratio λabs max /λl , where the λabs max is the absorption maximum of the PLE (see, Fig. 1) and λl nm is the laser wavelength: 1030 nm (1–3) and 800 nm (4,5). Right axis shows functional behavior of two-photon absorption, β, and refraction, n 2, (see, Fig. 2). Inset SEM images (1–3) show structures made at the same focusing conditions corresponding to: 13 TW/cm2 at focus I0=2(Ep/tp)πw2 for pulse duration of 300 fs, wavelength 1030 nm, pulse energy Ep = 14.5 nJ) in SZ2080 pure (1) and doped with 1 wt.% of Irg.(2) and Bis. (3), respectively. The markers (4,5) corresponds to SZ2080 with 2 wt.% of Irg. and SU-8, respectively, structured with 800 nm, 150 fs pulses focused by NA = 1.42 objective lens and are shown here for comparison [42].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Qualitative comparison of different laser structuring regimes for 1030 nm/300 fs pulses in SZ2080 at different photo-sensitization; focusing NA = 1.4 and scanning speed 100 μm/s.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n2[cm2/W]=Kh̄cEp2n02Eg4 G2 (h̄ω/Eg)
β[cm/W]=KEpn02Eg3F2(2h̄ω/Eg)
Δn=n2I+nehNc,
dnedt=newimp+nawmpi,
neIλt={ne0+nawmpiwimp[1exp(wimpt)]}exp(wimpt) .
wimpεoscJi 2ω2νeph(νeph2+ω2) ,
εosc[eV]=9.3(I1014[W/cm2])λμm2,
wmpiωnph3/2(εosc2Ji)nph,

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