Abstract

We report on the development of a compact, easy-to-use terahertz radiation source, which combines a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) operating at 3.1 THz with a compact, low-input-power Stirling cooler. The QCL, which is based on a two-miniband design, has been developed for high output and low electrical pump power. The amount of generated heat complies with the nominal cooling capacity of the Stirling cooler of 7 W at 65 K with 240 W of electrical input power. Special care has been taken to achieve a good thermal coupling between the QCL and the cold finger of the cooler. The whole system weighs less than 15 kg including the cooler and power supplies. The maximum output power is 8 mW at 3.1 THz. With an appropriate optical beam shaping, the emission profile of the laser is fundamental Gaussian. The applicability of the system is demonstrated by imaging and molecular-spectroscopy experiments.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, M. Wienold, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, “Compact model for the efficient simulation of the optical gain and transport properties in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(4), 045025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1030–1031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1159–1168 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 378–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (5)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Bründermann, M. Havenith, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, J. Kunsch, L. Mechold, and M. Abraham, “Turn-key compact high temperature terahertz quantum cascade lasers: imaging and room temperature detection,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1829–1841 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2123–2129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. M. Veprik, S. V. Riabzev, G. S. Vilenchik, and N. Pundak, “Ultra-low vibration split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler with a dynamically counterbalanced pneumatically driven expander,” Cryogenics 45(2), 117–122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Bonilla and H. T. Grahn, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor superlattices,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(3), 577–683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, M.

Adam, A. J. L.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, P.

Alton, J.

Anders, W.

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1030–1031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

Baryshev, A.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baryshew, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Beere, H. E.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2123–2129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bonilla, L. L.

L. L. Bonilla and H. T. Grahn, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor superlattices,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(3), 577–683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bründermann, E.

Darmo, J.

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Debbage, P.

Faist, J.

Fasching, G.

Fischer, M.

Gao, J. R.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giehler, M.

L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, M. Wienold, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, “Compact model for the efficient simulation of the optical gain and transport properties in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(4), 045025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1030–1031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

Gladden, L. F.

Graf, U. U.

Grahn, H. T.

L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, M. Wienold, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, “Compact model for the efficient simulation of the optical gain and transport properties in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(4), 045025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1030–1031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Bonilla and H. T. Grahn, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor superlattices,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(3), 577–683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hajenius, M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hart, R. A.

Havenith, M.

Henschke, R.

Hesler, J. L.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, M. Wienold, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, “Compact model for the efficient simulation of the optical gain and transport properties in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(4), 045025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1030–1031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. N.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 378–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Il’in, K.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jellema, W.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M. L.

Kennedy, J.

Khosropanah, P.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, T. O.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klein, B.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kremser, C.

Kröll, J.

Kumar, S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kunsch, J.

Laughman, L. M.

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Mahler, L.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mechold, L.

Mueller, E. R.

Newman, L. A.

Nguyen, K. L.

Paveliev, D. G.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S. G.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

Philipp, M.

Pickett, H. M.

Pundak, N.

A. M. Veprik, S. V. Riabzev, G. S. Vilenchik, and N. Pundak, “Ultra-low vibration split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler with a dynamically counterbalanced pneumatically driven expander,” Cryogenics 45(2), 117–122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabanus, D.

Reno, J. L.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riabzev, S. V.

A. M. Veprik, S. V. Riabzev, G. S. Vilenchik, and N. Pundak, “Ultra-low vibration split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler with a dynamically counterbalanced pneumatically driven expander,” Cryogenics 45(2), 117–122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, O.

Ritchie, D. A.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. F. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2123–2129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robotham, W. E.

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

Schrottke, L.

L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, M. Wienold, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, “Compact model for the efficient simulation of the optical gain and transport properties in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(4), 045025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1030–1031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stutzki, J.

Tamosiunas, V.

Tredicucci, A.

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

Veprik, A. M.

A. M. Veprik, S. V. Riabzev, G. S. Vilenchik, and N. Pundak, “Ultra-low vibration split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler with a dynamically counterbalanced pneumatically driven expander,” Cryogenics 45(2), 117–122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vilenchik, G. S.

A. M. Veprik, S. V. Riabzev, G. S. Vilenchik, and N. Pundak, “Ultra-low vibration split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler with a dynamically counterbalanced pneumatically driven expander,” Cryogenics 45(2), 117–122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vowinkel, B.

Walther, C.

Wiedner, M. C.

Wienold, M.

L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, M. Wienold, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, “Compact model for the efficient simulation of the optical gain and transport properties in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(4), 045025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1030–1031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Worrall, C. H.

Yang, Z. Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshew, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and H.-W. Hübers, “Sub-megahertz frequency stabilization of a terahertz quantum cascade laser to a molecular absorption line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cryogenics (1)

A. M. Veprik, S. V. Riabzev, G. S. Vilenchik, and N. Pundak, “Ultra-low vibration split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler with a dynamically counterbalanced pneumatically driven expander,” Cryogenics 45(2), 117–122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-voltage terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on LO-phonon-assisted interminiband transitions,” Electron. Lett. 45(20), 1030–1031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz Heterodyne Receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 378–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 19(34), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. L. Bonilla and H. T. Grahn, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor superlattices,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(3), 577–683 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, M. Wienold, R. Hey, and H. T. Grahn, “Compact model for the efficient simulation of the optical gain and transport properties in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(4), 045025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, R. Güsten, P. Hartogh, H.-W. Hübers, K. Jacobs, M. Philipp, D. Rabanus, H.-P. Röser, J. Stutzki, P. Van der Wal, and A. Wagner-Gentner, “GREAT: the German first light heterodyne instrument for SOFIA,” in Proc. Conf. on Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy III, vol. SPIE 6275, Orlando, 2006, pp. 62750K–1-62750K–7.

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