Abstract

Using the coordinate transformation theory, we propose a way to control the field distribution of electromagnetic wave in a waveguide filling with properly designed transformation media. The results show that the field distribution of the electromagnetic wave can be compressed and amplified in both longitudinal and transverse direction. A realizable layered waveguide based on the discrete optical transformation is also designed to manipulate the field distribution of the electromagnetic wave. Potential applications, i.e., turn a narrow (wide) slit into a large (small) window, are investigated in detail.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1069–1071 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. S. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
  9. B. L. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, “Extraordinary surface voltage effect in the invisibility cloak with an active device inside,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063904 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Zhou and G. K. Hu, “Acoustic wave transparency for a multilayered sphere with acoustic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(4), 046606 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical cloaks of an arbitrary cross section,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1584 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013825 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Cloaking of matter waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123002 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Yao, Z. Liang, and X. Jiang, “Limitations of the electromagnetic cloak with dispersive material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Li and F. Li, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloaks with arbitrary geometries,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13414–13420 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. X. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, X. Luo, and H. Ma, “Transformation media that turn a narrow slit into a large window,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11764–11768 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Sun, and X. Jiang, “The physical picture and the essential elements of the dynamical process for dispersive cloaking structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Hu, X. M. Zhou, and G. K. Hu, “Nonsingular two dimensional cloak of arbitrary shape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X. F. Xu, Y. Feng, Y. Hao, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Infrared carpet cloak designed with uniform silicon grating structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 184102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, B. Zhang, B. I. Wu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Spherical cloaking using nonlinear transformations for improved segmentation into concentric isotropic coatings,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13467–13478 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “General method for designing wave shape transformers,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22072 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D.-H. Kwon, “Virtual circular array using material-embedded linear source distributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Huangfu, and L. Ran, “High-directivity antenna with small antenna aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193506 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221906 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (8)

J. Hu, X. M. Zhou, and G. K. Hu, “Nonsingular two dimensional cloak of arbitrary shape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Xu, Y. Feng, Y. Hao, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Infrared carpet cloak designed with uniform silicon grating structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 184102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, B. Zhang, B. I. Wu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Spherical cloaking using nonlinear transformations for improved segmentation into concentric isotropic coatings,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13467–13478 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Kwon, “Virtual circular array using material-embedded linear source distributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Huangfu, and L. Ran, “High-directivity antenna with small antenna aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (16)

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “General method for designing wave shape transformers,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22072 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, “Extraordinary surface voltage effect in the invisibility cloak with an active device inside,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical cloaks of an arbitrary cross section,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Cloaking of matter waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yao, Z. Liang, and X. Jiang, “Limitations of the electromagnetic cloak with dispersive material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Li and F. Li, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloaks with arbitrary geometries,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13414–13420 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, X. Luo, and H. Ma, “Transformation media that turn a narrow slit into a large window,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11764–11768 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Sun, and X. Jiang, “The physical picture and the essential elements of the dynamical process for dispersive cloaking structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (8)

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and G. K. Hu, “Acoustic wave transparency for a multilayered sphere with acoustic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(4), 046606 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1069–1071 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).

H. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ao, X.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Huangfu, and L. Ran, “High-directivity antenna with small antenna aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, “Extraordinary surface voltage effect in the invisibility cloak with an active device inside,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).

Chen, H. Y.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, X. Luo, and H. Ma, “Transformation media that turn a narrow slit into a large window,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11764–11768 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

X. F. Xu, Y. Feng, Y. Hao, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Infrared carpet cloak designed with uniform silicon grating structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 184102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Cloaking of matter waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenneau, S.

Han, D. Z.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Y.

X. F. Xu, Y. Feng, Y. Hao, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Infrared carpet cloak designed with uniform silicon grating structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 184102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hou, B.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, G. K.

J. Hu, X. M. Zhou, and G. K. Hu, “Nonsingular two dimensional cloak of arbitrary shape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and G. K. Hu, “Acoustic wave transparency for a multilayered sphere with acoustic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(4), 046606 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

J. Hu, X. M. Zhou, and G. K. Hu, “Nonsingular two dimensional cloak of arbitrary shape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

Huangfu, J.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Huangfu, and L. Ran, “High-directivity antenna with small antenna aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, T.

X. F. Xu, Y. Feng, Y. Hao, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Infrared carpet cloak designed with uniform silicon grating structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 184102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. X.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

P. Yao, Z. Liang, and X. Jiang, “Limitations of the electromagnetic cloak with dispersive material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Sun, and X. Jiang, “The physical picture and the essential elements of the dynamical process for dispersive cloaking structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

B. L. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, “Extraordinary surface voltage effect in the invisibility cloak with an active device inside,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).

Kwon, D.-H.

D.-H. Kwon, “Virtual circular array using material-embedded linear source distributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, F.

Liang, Z.

Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Sun, and X. Jiang, “The physical picture and the essential elements of the dynamical process for dispersive cloaking structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Yao, Z. Liang, and X. Jiang, “Limitations of the electromagnetic cloak with dispersive material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Huangfu, and L. Ran, “High-directivity antenna with small antenna aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Ma, H. F.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neff, C. W.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, J.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolet, A.

Pendry, J.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1069–1071 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, C. W.

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “General method for designing wave shape transformers,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22072 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ran, L.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Huangfu, and L. Ran, “High-directivity antenna with small antenna aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, Z. C.

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Cloaking of matter waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Sun, and X. Jiang, “The physical picture and the essential elements of the dynamical process for dispersive cloaking structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “General method for designing wave shape transformers,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22072 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wen, W.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, B. Zhang, B. I. Wu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Spherical cloaking using nonlinear transformations for improved segmentation into concentric isotropic coatings,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13467–13478 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, “Extraordinary surface voltage effect in the invisibility cloak with an active device inside,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.-I.

H. S. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).

Xiao, J.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. F.

X. F. Xu, Y. Feng, Y. Hao, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Infrared carpet cloak designed with uniform silicon grating structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 184102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, “General method for designing wave shape transformers,” Opt. Express 16(26), 22072 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. M.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, P.

P. Yao, Z. Liang, and X. Jiang, “Limitations of the electromagnetic cloak with dispersive material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Sun, and X. Jiang, “The physical picture and the essential elements of the dynamical process for dispersive cloaking structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, B. L.

B. L. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, “Extraordinary surface voltage effect in the invisibility cloak with an active device inside,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).

Zhang, J.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Huangfu, and L. Ran, “High-directivity antenna with small antenna aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Cloaking of matter waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z. Q.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

X. F. Xu, Y. Feng, Y. Hao, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Infrared carpet cloak designed with uniform silicon grating structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 184102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou and G. K. Hu, “Acoustic wave transparency for a multilayered sphere with acoustic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(4), 046606 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. M.

J. Hu, X. M. Zhou, and G. K. Hu, “Nonsingular two dimensional cloak of arbitrary shape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zolla, F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

H. Y. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Yao, Z. Liang, and X. Jiang, “Limitations of the electromagnetic cloak with dispersive material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Sun, and X. Jiang, “The physical picture and the essential elements of the dynamical process for dispersive cloaking structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, X. M. Zhou, and G. K. Hu, “Nonsingular two dimensional cloak of arbitrary shape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Xu, Y. Feng, Y. Hao, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Infrared carpet cloak designed with uniform silicon grating structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 184102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon, “Virtual circular array using material-embedded linear source distributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 173503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, J. Huangfu, and L. Ran, “High-directivity antenna with small antenna aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and C. T. Chan, “Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, “Layered high-gain lens antennas via discrete optical transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6(1), 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (2)

X. Zhou and G. K. Hu, “Acoustic wave transparency for a multilayered sphere with acoustic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(4), 046606 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016623 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

H. S. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. L. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).

B. L. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, “Extraordinary surface voltage effect in the invisibility cloak with an active device inside,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Cloaking of matter waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, S. A. Cummer, D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Optical design of reflectionless complex media by finite embedded coordinate transformations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 063903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H. Y. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic illustration the field distribution of EMW is compressed or amplified in the transformation region. In the transformation region: (a) The field distribution of EMW is amplified both in longitudinal and transverse direction. Hollow arrow represents the direction of EMW propagation. (b) The field distribution of EMW is amplified in longitudinal direction but compressed in transverse direction. (c) The field distribution of EMW is amplified in transverse direction but compressed in longitudinal direction. (d) The field distribution of EMW is compressed both in longitudinal and transverse direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Electric field distribution of continuous coordinate transformation [Eq. (3)] with system parameters (a) a = 0.2m, b = 1m, c = 2 (b) a = 0.2m, b = 1m, c = 1/2, (c) a = 0.3m, b = 0.2m, c = 2, (d) a = 0.3m, b = 0.2m, c = 1/2. The frequency of the line source is 2GHz for (a), (b), and 1.4GHz for (c), (d). The inset displays the field distribution of three regions: I-the free space II-the transformation region III-the free space (left) or a homogeneous material (right) with μxx = 0.5, μyy = 2, εzz = 0.5. The parameters in the transformation region are the same as (a)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Electric field distribution of discrete coordinate transformation [Eqs. (5)] with system parameters (a) a = 0.2m, b = 1m, c = 2 (b) a = 0.2m, b = 1m, c = 1/2, (c) a = 0.3m, b = 0.2m, c = 2, (d) a = 0.3m, b = 0.2m, c = 1/2. The frequency of the line source is 2GHz for (a), (b), and 1.4GHz for (c), (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Electric field distribution demonstration the shape of the origin EMW can be restored when a “mirror” transformation region (region II) add to the system. The system parameters are (a) aI = 0.2m, bI = 1m, cI = 1/2 LI = 1m, aII = 0.2m, bII = 1m, cII = 2, LII = 1m, with continuous coordinate transformation, (b) the parameters are the same as (a) but with discrete coordinate transformation, (c) aI = 0.2m, bI = 0.3m, cI = 1/2 LI = 0.4m,, aII = 0.3m, bII = 0.2m, cII = 2, LII = 0.4m,with continuous coordinate transformation, (d) the parameters are the same as (c) but with discrete coordinate transformation. The frequency of the line source is 2GHz for (a), (b), and 1.4GHz for (c), (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near the slit without transformation media in it. (b) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near the designed transformation media slit with c1 = c2 = 1. (c) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near a big “window”. (d) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near the designed transformation media slit with 3C1 = C2 = 1. (e) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near a much bigger “window”. (f) The schematic diagram represents the function of the small slit of (b). a1 = a2 = 0.3m, b = 0.1m, c1 = c2 = 1, L1 = L2 = 0.4m, a’ = 0.3m, b’ = 0.8m. (g) The schematic diagram represents the function of the small slit of (d). a1 = a2 = 0.3m, b = 0.1m, c1 = c2 = 1, L1 = L2 = 0.4m, a” = 0.3m, b” = 1.6m.The frequency of the line source is 1.4GHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near the slit without transformation media in it. (b) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near the designed transformation media slit with c1 = c2 = 1. (c) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near a small “window”. (d) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near the designed transformation media slit with (1/2)c1 = c2 = 1. (e) The electric field distribution for an electric line source near a much smaller “window”. (f) The schematic diagram represents the function of the large slit of (a). a1 = a2 = 0.2m, b = 1m, c1 = c2 = 1, L1 = L2 = 0.5m, a’ = 0.2m, b’ = 1m. (g) The schematic diagram represents the function of the large slit of (c). a1 = a2 = 0.2m, b = 1m, (1/2)c1 = c2 = 1,L1 = L2 = 0.5m, a” = 0.2m, b” = 0.75m.The frequency of the line source is 2GHz.

Equations (5)

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x'=x+(ba)xy'Lay'=cyz'=z,
ε¯¯=Λε¯ΛTdet(Λ)μ¯¯=Λμ¯ΛTdet(Λ),
ε¯¯ε=μ¯¯μ=[La+(ba)y'Lac+Lac(ba)2x'2(La+(ba)y')3Lac(ba)x'(La+(ba)y')20Lac(ba)x'(La+(ba)y')2LacLa+(ba)y'000Lac(La+(ba)y')],
x'=x+(ba)xk(n)Lay'=cyz'=z,
ε¯¯nε=μ¯¯nμ=[La+(ba)k(n)Lac000LacLa+(ba)k(n)000Lac(La+(ba)k(n))].

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