Abstract

A bistable, polarizer-free, and reflective electro-optical switch based on a droplet manipulation on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film (LCPCF) is demonstrated. A color droplet on LCPCF can be manipulated by a wettability gradient owning to the distribution of LC directors anchored among the polymer grains on LCPCF. The contrast ratio is around 8:1 in a reflective mode. The potential applications of droplet manipulation are electronic papers and reflective displays.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamental of Liquid Crystal Devices, (England: Wiley, 2006).
  2. D. K. Yang, “Review of operating principle and performance of polarizer-free reflective liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 117–124 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High Contrast Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, “Pinning effect on the phase separation dynamics of thin polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(2), 468–474 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. H. Lin, J. M. Yang, Y. R. Lin, S. C. Jeng, and C. C. Liao, “A polarizer-free flexible and reflective electrooptical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1777–1785 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. H. Lin and C. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free three step switch using distinct dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. H. Lin, H. C. Lin, and J. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Materials 2(4), 1662–1673 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. K. Chaudhury and G. M. Whitesides, “How to make water run uphill,” Science 256(5063), 1539–1541 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity,” ChemPhysChem 8(14), 2036–2050 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, S. T. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and H. C. Lin, “Electrically tunable wettability of liquid crystal/polymer composite films,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17591–17598 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film,” Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Display Technology 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. De Gennes, F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quere, Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004)

2009 (2)

Y. H. Lin and C. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free three step switch using distinct dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. C. Lin, and J. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Materials 2(4), 1662–1673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

D. K. Yang, “Review of operating principle and performance of polarizer-free reflective liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 117–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, J. M. Yang, Y. R. Lin, S. C. Jeng, and C. C. Liao, “A polarizer-free flexible and reflective electrooptical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1777–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, S. T. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and H. C. Lin, “Electrically tunable wettability of liquid crystal/polymer composite films,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17591–17598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity,” ChemPhysChem 8(14), 2036–2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Display Technology 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High Contrast Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. K. Chaudhury and G. M. Whitesides, “How to make water run uphill,” Science 256(5063), 1539–1541 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhury, M. K.

M. K. Chaudhury and G. M. Whitesides, “How to make water run uphill,” Science 256(5063), 1539–1541 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, I. S.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, J.

Feenstra, B. J.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Display Technology 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film,” Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Gras, S. L.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity,” ChemPhysChem 8(14), 2036–2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, R. A.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffer, S.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeng, S. C.

Kaido, H.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalantar-Zadeh, K.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity,” ChemPhysChem 8(14), 2036–2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahann, J.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, R.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Liao, C. C.

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. C. Lin, and J. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Materials 2(4), 1662–1673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, S. T. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and H. C. Lin, “Electrically tunable wettability of liquid crystal/polymer composite films,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17591–17598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin and C. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free three step switch using distinct dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. C. Lin, and J. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Materials 2(4), 1662–1673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, S. T. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and H. C. Lin, “Electrically tunable wettability of liquid crystal/polymer composite films,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17591–17598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, J. M. Yang, Y. R. Lin, S. C. Jeng, and C. C. Liao, “A polarizer-free flexible and reflective electrooptical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1777–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Display Technology 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film,” Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, “Pinning effect on the phase separation dynamics of thin polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(2), 468–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High Contrast Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. R.

Mahmud, T.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity,” ChemPhysChem 8(14), 2036–2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, A.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity,” ChemPhysChem 8(14), 2036–2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitragotri, S.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, S. T. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and H. C. Lin, “Electrically tunable wettability of liquid crystal/polymer composite films,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17591–17598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Display Technology 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film,” Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, “Pinning effect on the phase separation dynamics of thin polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(2), 468–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High Contrast Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosengarten, G.

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity,” ChemPhysChem 8(14), 2036–2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somorjai, G. A.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaram, J.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, T. N.

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. K. Chaudhury and G. M. Whitesides, “How to make water run uphill,” Science 256(5063), 1539–1541 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, S. T. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and H. C. Lin, “Electrically tunable wettability of liquid crystal/polymer composite films,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17591–17598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Display Technology 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film,” Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, “Pinning effect on the phase separation dynamics of thin polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(2), 468–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High Contrast Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

Yang, C. M.

Y. H. Lin and C. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free three step switch using distinct dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang, “Review of operating principle and performance of polarizer-free reflective liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 117–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. M.

Y. H. Lin, H. C. Lin, and J. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Materials 2(4), 1662–1673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, J. M. Yang, Y. R. Lin, S. C. Jeng, and C. C. Liao, “A polarizer-free flexible and reflective electrooptical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1777–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High Contrast Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin and C. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free three step switch using distinct dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

S. L. Gras, T. Mahmud, G. Rosengarten, A. Mitchell, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Intelligent control of surface hydrophobicity,” ChemPhysChem 8(14), 2036–2050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Display Technology (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S. T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Display Technology 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

D. K. Yang, “Review of operating principle and performance of polarizer-free reflective liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 117–124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Materials (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. C. Lin, and J. M. Yang, “A polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Materials 2(4), 1662–1673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425(6956), 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film,” Proc. SPIE 5936, 59360O (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. K. Chaudhury and G. M. Whitesides, “How to make water run uphill,” Science 256(5063), 1539–1541 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lahann, S. Mitragotri, T. N. Tran, H. Kaido, J. Sundaram, I. S. Choi, S. Hoffer, G. A. Somorjai, and R. Langer, “A reversibly switching surface,” Science 299(5605), 371–374 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamental of Liquid Crystal Devices, (England: Wiley, 2006).

P. De Gennes, F. Brochard-Wyart, and D. Quere, Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004)

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (690 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (1594 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (1390 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The operating principles of droplet movement on LCPCF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The operating principles of a polarizer-free bistable electro-optical switch using the movement of a colored droplet on the LCPCF at (a) voltage-off state, (b) voltage-on state on the left electrode region. (c)After the voltage is turned off, the droplet contracts and then stops moving. A and B are 1.5 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The SEM photograph of LCPCF. The white arrow indicates the rubbing direction during the fabrication process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The droplet motion on LCPCF under crossed polarizers (a) without driving voltages. (b)The droplet moves toward the right electrode region, when we apply pulsed voltages (250 Vrms) on the right region of zigzag-electrodes. P: polarizer. A: analyzer. The rubbing direction during fabrication process is parallel to P.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The color droplet translate from (a)the left to (b)the right when we apply pulsed voltages on the electrode number “4”.(Media 2, 1585 KB) A white paper was used as a diffusive reflector. The paper was drawn with four rectangles to indicate the regions of zig-zag electrodes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The photos of the droplet manipulation at different times. (Media 1, 690 KB)(b) The contact angle on the left and right of the droplet as a function of time under a squared pulsed voltage (250 Vrms) with 600 ms time duration. (c) The contact angle as a function of time in (b) between 0.4 sec and 0.45 sec. (d) The translation distance (black line) of center of mass of the droplet as a function of time under pulsed voltages (blue line). The droplet volume was 3 μL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The illustration of (b) a reflective, polarizer-free, and bistable electro-optical switch using colored droplet movement on the LCPCF at different time. (Media 3, 1391 KB) (c) The percentage of white area as a function of time under an applied pulsed voltage on the lower or the upper region of electrodes in (a). (d) A contrast ratio of the polarizer-free electro-optical switch as a function of wavelength in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F=π×r×γLV(cos(θL)cos(θR)),
cos[θ'(Vrms)]=flccos(θlc(Vrms))+fPcos(θP),

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