Abstract

We demonstrate all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium lasers at 1570 nm using Tm3+-doped saturable-absorber fibers. The absorption cross section of a Tm3+-doped fiber at 1570 nm was measured in a bleaching experiment to be about 1.44 × 10−20 cm2. With a thulium-doped fiber, sequential pulses with a pulse energy of 9 μJ and a pulse duration of about 420 ns were stably produced at repetition rates in the range 0.1 to 2 kHz. The maximum pulse repetition rate was 6 kHz, limited by the maximum pump power of a 980-nm laser diode, about 230 mW.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 361–366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

Adel, P.

Agger, S. D.

Andrés, M. V.

Annapurna, K.

K. Annapurna, M. Das, and S. Buddhudu, “Spectral analysis of thulium doped zinc-boro-silicate glass,” Physica B 388(1-2), 174–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, M.

Broer, M. M.

Buddhudu, S.

K. Annapurna, M. Das, and S. Buddhudu, “Spectral analysis of thulium doped zinc-boro-silicate glass,” Physica B 388(1-2), 174–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 361–366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Das, M.

K. Annapurna, M. Das, and S. Buddhudu, “Spectral analysis of thulium doped zinc-boro-silicate glass,” Physica B 388(1-2), 174–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delgado-Pinar, M.

Dianov, E. M.

Díez, A.

Digiovanni, D. J.

Duchowicz, R.

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, D. Zalvidea, and R. Duchowicz, “Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5046–5051 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 361–366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Fallnich, C.

Fang, Y.-C.

Ferrand, B.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fromager, M.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

Girard, S.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

Häring, R.

Huang, D. W.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Keller, U.

Kirchhof, J.

Kivistö, S.

Koskinen, R.

Krol, D. M.

Kuleshov, N. V.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, and O. I. Medvedkov, “All fiber Yb-Ho pulsed laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(2), 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z.-C.

Levchenko, V. I.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. F.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

Medvedkov, O. I.

A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, and O. I. Medvedkov, “All fiber Yb-Ho pulsed laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(2), 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

Moncorg’e, R.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mora, J.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 361–366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H.-R.

Offerhaus, H. L.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Paajaste, J.

Paschotta, R.

Pérez-Millan, P.

Pérez-Millán, P.

Povlsen, J. H.

Richardson, D. J.

Russo, N. A.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 361–366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sholokhov, E. M.

A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, and O. I. Medvedkov, “All fiber Yb-Ho pulsed laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(2), 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.-Y.

Tsao, H.-X.

Unger, S.

Yakimovich, V. N.

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zalvidea, D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. G. Shcherbitsky, S. Girard, M. Fromager, R. Moncorg’e, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, and B. Ferrand, “Accurate method for the measurement of absorption cross sections of solid-state saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 367–374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(9), 1153–1155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, and O. I. Medvedkov, “All fiber Yb-Ho pulsed laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(2), 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210(3-6), 361–366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Physica B (1)

K. Annapurna, M. Das, and S. Buddhudu, “Spectral analysis of thulium doped zinc-boro-silicate glass,” Physica B 388(1-2), 174–179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. A. Simpson, “Spectroscopy of Thulium Doped Silica Glass,” (Victoria University, Melbourne, 2008).

A. A. Fotiadi, A. S. Kurkov, and I. M. Razdobreev, “All-fiber passively Q-switched Ytterbium laser,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 515.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The absorption spectrum of the thulium fiber (model Tm134, the left y axis). The normalized σa(λ) is the absorption spectrum divided by the estimated confinement factor Γ(λ) and normalized by the peak value at 1210 nm (the right y axis).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic diagram of a passively Q-switched all-fiber erbium laser using a thulium SAQS fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The output characteristics of the thulium-Q-switched erbium laser: pulse energy, pulse width (FWHM) and pulse repetition rate relative to pump power. (b) A steady pulse shape at repetition rates 0.2-2 kHz. (c) A pulse train at a repetition rate of 1 kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Degradation of the average output power by photo-darkening in a 110-hour operation of the Tm-Q-switched erbium fiber laser with a constant 918-nm pump power of 100 mW. The pulse width of 420 ns and the pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz were stable in the period.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Bleaching experiment for measuring the absorption cross section of thulium fiber. (b) Experimental bleaching data of a thulium fiber (Tm134), and the best-fit theoretical matching curve. The best-fit curve of the modified Avizonis-Grotbeck’s equation was obtained with the following parameters: initial absorption loss = 1.83 dB (~66% transmission), σa = 1.44 × 10−20 cm2, σESA = 0, α = 0, λ = 1570 nm, pa = 1.2, Γ = 0.17 and the core diameter dc = 3 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Saturable-absorber Q-switching performances of erbium lasers using a Tm fiber and a Tm-Ho co-doped fiber. The factor Δτpw is the pulse FWHM, and Ep is the pulse energy. The factors pg (for erbium) and pa (for thulium) are 1.5 and 1.2 at 1570 nm.

Equations (2)

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CqpaAgσapgAaσg>1,withpa=(1+ga)  and  pg=(1+gg),
E(z)z=AchνNopa(1σESApaσa)(1exp(paσahν(ΓAc)E(z)))(NoσESApa+α)ΓE(z),

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