Abstract

Optical transmission through concentric circular nanoslits is studied in experiments and numerical simulations. Polarized optical microscopic imaging shows that the optical transmission through these apertures is spatially inhomogeneous, exhibiting colored fan texture patterns. Numerical simulations show that these colored fan texture patterns originate from the cylindrical vector polarization of the transmitted beam. Specifically, the transmitted light is in-phase radially polarized at long wavelengths due to the predominant transmission of the transverse magnetic (TM) waveguide modes; and in-phase azimuthally polarized at short wavelengths due to the increased optical transmission of the transverse electric (TE) waveguide modes. Additionally, the transmission shows a peak at the wavelength of Wood anomaly and a dip at the resonant wavelength of surface plasmon excitation; and the transmitted light at these wavelengths is a mixture of azimuthally and radially polarized fields. These interesting optical transmission behaviors of circular nanoslits provide a miniaturized way to generating radially and azimuthally polarized light.

© 2009 OSA

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  3. E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418(6895), 304–306 (2002).
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  4. E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, D. Erni, J. I. Cirac, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Theory of plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(23), 236801 (2004).
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  5. S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 110501 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Miniature plasmonic wave plates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043902 (2008).
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  9. F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, “Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 1–8 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  35. B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. B. Ung and Y. L. Sheng, “Interference of surface waves in a metallic nanoslit,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1182–1190 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. R. W. Wood, “Anomalous Diffraction Gratings,” Phys. Rev. 48(12), 928–936 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  40. P. B. Catrysse and S. H. Fan, “Understanding the Dispersion of Coaxial Plasmonic Structures through a Connection with the Planar Metal-Insulator-Metal Geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  42. A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  43. S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gao, J. M. McMahon, M. H. Lee, J. Henzie, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, and T. W. Odom, “Rayleigh anomaly-surface plasmon polariton resonances in palladium and gold subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2334–2340 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Catrysse and S. H. Fan, “Understanding the Dispersion of Coaxial Plasmonic Structures through a Connection with the Planar Metal-Insulator-Metal Geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Miniature plasmonic wave plates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material Processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Huang, Q. J. Wang, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Dual effect of surface plasmons in light transmission through perforated metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Garcia and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Theory of electromagnetic wave transmission through metallic gratings of subwavelength slits,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(5), 490–495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ung and Y. L. Sheng, “Interference of surface waves in a metallic nanoslit,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1182–1190 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Z. C. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Steele, Z. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. G. Lee and Q. H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Enhanced mid-infrared transmission through nanoscale metallic coaxial-aperture arrays,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4406–4413 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 110501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Deep subwavelength nanolithography using localized surface plasmon modes on planar silver mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(6), 2636–2639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, D. Erni, J. I. Cirac, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Theory of plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(23), 236801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, “Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, and J. M. Vigoureux, “Role of Wood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Steele, C. E. Moran, A. Lee, C. M. Aguirre, and N. J. Halas, “Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418(6895), 304–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, “Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 17–22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Laser Beams with Axially Symmetric Polarization,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1935

R. W. Wood, “Anomalous Diffraction Gratings,” Phys. Rev. 48(12), 928–936 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, C. M.

J. M. Steele, C. E. Moran, A. Lee, C. M. Aguirre, and N. J. Halas, “Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Altewischer, E.

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418(6895), 304–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, “Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, “Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 17–22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkhir, A.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, “Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catrysse, P. B.

P. B. Catrysse and S. H. Fan, “Understanding the Dispersion of Coaxial Plasmonic Structures through a Connection with the Planar Metal-Insulator-Metal Geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, D. Erni, J. I. Cirac, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Theory of plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(23), 236801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darmanyan, S. A.

S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Miniature plasmonic wave plates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X. B.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durant, S.

W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Deep subwavelength nanolithography using localized surface plasmon modes on planar silver mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(6), 2636–2639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dykhne, A. M.

A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

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C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 110501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, D. Erni, J. I. Cirac, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Theory of plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(23), 236801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
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S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 110501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feurer, T.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material Processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
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Gao, H.

Garcia, N.

N. Garcia and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Theory of electromagnetic wave transmission through metallic gratings of subwavelength slits,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(5), 490–495 (2007).
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J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, D. Erni, J. I. Cirac, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Theory of plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(23), 236801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Miniature plasmonic wave plates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 043902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 110501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009).
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A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
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F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, “Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 1–8 (2004).
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J. M. Steele, C. E. Moran, A. Lee, C. M. Aguirre, and N. J. Halas, “Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 205103 (2003).
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J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
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J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
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A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
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J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
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Kim, D. S.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
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Klein Koerkamp, K. J.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
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Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
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A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A.

J. M. Steele, C. E. Moran, A. Lee, C. M. Aguirre, and N. J. Halas, “Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Deep subwavelength nanolithography using localized surface plasmon modes on planar silver mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(6), 2636–2639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. G. Lee and Q. H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005).
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Lee, M. H.

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R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
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L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

J. M. Steele, Z. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Martín-Moreno, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, D. Erni, J. I. Cirac, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Theory of plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(23), 236801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
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McMahon, J. M.

Meier, M.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material Processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Steele, C. E. Moran, A. Lee, C. M. Aguirre, and N. J. Halas, “Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, “Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 1–8 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 110501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, D. Erni, J. I. Cirac, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Theory of plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(23), 236801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
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Park, Q. H.

K. G. Lee and Q. H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005).
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L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
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Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
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Pikus, Y.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
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F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44(24), 13556–13572 (1991).
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Z. C. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
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R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
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Rahman, M. M.

J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 110501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romano, V.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material Processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
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J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009).
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Segerink, F. B.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, M. A.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
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A. M. Dykhne, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Resonant transmittance through metal films with fabricated and light-induced modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 67(19), 195402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y. L.

Sinton, D.

F. Eftekhari, C. Escobedo, J. Ferreira, X. B. Duan, E. M. Girotto, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, and D. Sinton, “Nanoholes as nanochannels: flow-through plasmonic sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(11), 4308–4311 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ferreira, M. J. L. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Deep subwavelength nanolithography using localized surface plasmon modes on planar silver mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(6), 2636–2639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

J. M. Steele, Z. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Steele, C. E. Moran, A. Lee, C. M. Aguirre, and N. J. Halas, “Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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W. Srituravanich, S. Durant, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Deep subwavelength nanolithography using localized surface plasmon modes on planar silver mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(6), 2636–2639 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) An SEM image of the circular nanoslit sample with 375nm radial period and 145nm slit width; (b) the experimental setup for imaging and spectral measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarized optical microscopic images of the circular nanoslits with radial period at 375nm (a and d); 320nm (b and e); and 270nm (c and f). The polarizer is oriented all vertically; the analyzer is oriented vertically for a-c and horizontally for d-f.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra for the circular nanoslits with the radial period at 375nm (a), 320nm (b) and 270nm (c); and simulated transmission spectra for the circular nanoslits with radial period at 375nm (d), 320nm (e), and 270nm (f) respectively. The red dash-dot lines represent the transmission spectra for the cross polarized microscopy condition; the green dash lines represent the transmission spectra for the parallel polarized microscopy condition; and the blue solid curves represent the total transmission (i.e., without an analyzer).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FDTD calculated local field distributions of the transmitted light at a plane 350nm beneath the Ag film for the circular nanoslits of 375nm radial period at three representative free space wavelengths: 850nm (a, b and c), 550nm (d, e and f) and 400nm (g, h and i). The left column (a, d and g) depicts the amplitudes of the vertical components of the electric field; the middle column (b, e and h) depicts the amplitudes of the horizontal components of the electric field; and the right column (c, f and i) depicts the snapshots of the electric field vector distributions. The incident polarization is vertical for all simulations. The electric field amplitudes have been normalized by the incident field amplitude. In (c), (f) and (i), the arrow color represents the electric field amplitude; the arrow orientation represents the electric field direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersion curves (a) and propagation lengths (b) for the anti-symmetric TM mode and the anti-symmetric TE mode in a Ag/air/Ag waveguide with the air gap at 145nm, 120nm and 90nm respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A vector distribution snapshot of the calculated local electrical field for the transmitted light at a plane 350nm beneath the Ag film for 270nm radial period and 400nm incident wavelength.

Equations (2)

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ε d k m i ε m k d tan ( k d d / 2 ) = 0
k m i k d tan ( k d d / 2 ) = 0

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