Abstract

We demonstrate the operation of two types of waveguides formed in three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs). We first created a vertical waveguide by stacking acceptor-type defects, in which near-infrared light propagates in the stacking direction. Light is transmitted independent of polarization in this waveguide because electromagnetic waves couple to a degenerate mode derived from the structural symmetry of the defects. We then connected horizontal and vertical waveguides to form an L-shaped waveguide, which is able to guide near-infrared light from the horizontal to vertical direction in the 3D PC. We envisage the realization of more complex 3D optical interconnections by optimizing the waveguide structures and increasing the PC period in the vertical direction.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004), doi:.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3739–3741 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 66(16), 165211 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Y. Li and K. M. Ho, “Waveguides in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 801–809 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Roundy, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Polarization-selective waveguide bends in a photonic crystal structure with layered square symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7750–7752 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light localization for broadband integrated optics in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161316 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9774–9781 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Kawashima, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of compound-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6303–6307 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Kawashima, M. Imada, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “High-precision alignment and bonding system for the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16(5), 1140–1144 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Kawashima, M. Imada, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “High-precision alignment and bonding system for the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16(5), 1140–1144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of compound-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6303–6307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Roundy, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Polarization-selective waveguide bends in a photonic crystal structure with layered square symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7750–7752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 66(16), 165211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3739–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, C.

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light localization for broadband integrated optics in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 66(16), 165211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3739–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García-Santamaría, F.

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guimard, D.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li and K. M. Ho, “Waveguides in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 801–809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawashima, M. Imada, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “High-precision alignment and bonding system for the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16(5), 1140–1144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of compound-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6303–6307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9774–9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishizaki, K.

K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawashima, M. Imada, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “High-precision alignment and bonding system for the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16(5), 1140–1144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, S.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roundy, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Polarization-selective waveguide bends in a photonic crystal structure with layered square symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7750–7752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light localization for broadband integrated optics in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawashima, S.

S. Kawashima, M. Imada, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “High-precision alignment and bonding system for the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16(5), 1140–1144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of compound-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6303–6307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9774–9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. H.

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9774–9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Y.

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li and K. M. Ho, “Waveguides in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 801–809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lidorikis, E.

D. Roundy, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Polarization-selective waveguide bends in a photonic crystal structure with layered square symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7750–7752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muehlmeier, J.

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamori, T.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, M.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawashima, M. Imada, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “High-precision alignment and bonding system for the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16(5), 1140–1144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of compound-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6303–6307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9774–9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 66(16), 165211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3739–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, M.

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, S.

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, M.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of compound-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6303–6307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13(24), 9774–9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 66(16), 165211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ota, Y.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qi, M.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakich, P. T.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinne, S. A.

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

D. Roundy, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Polarization-selective waveguide bends in a photonic crystal structure with layered square symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7750–7752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sell, C.

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, S.

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temelkuran, B.

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuttle, G.

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimoto, S.

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, “Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, “Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3739–3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sell, C. Christensen, J. Muehlmeier, G. Tuttle, Z. Y. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Waveguide networks in three-dimensional layer-by-layer photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4605–4607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Roundy, E. Lidorikis, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Polarization-selective waveguide bends in a photonic crystal structure with layered square symmetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7750–7752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

S. Kawashima, M. Imada, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “High-precision alignment and bonding system for the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16(5), 1140–1144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. A. Rinne, F. García-Santamaría, and P. V. Braun, “Embedded cavities and waveguides in three-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 52–56 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Aoki, D. Guimard, M. Nishioka, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Coupling of quantum-dot light emission with a three-dimensional photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 688–692 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature. Materials (1)

S. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, M. Okano, M. Imada, T. Nakamori, Y. Ota, K. Ishizaki, and S. Noda, “Direct creation of three-dimensional photonic crystals by a top-down approach,” Nature. Materials 8, 721–725 (2009); advance online publication, 9 August 2009 (DOI ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light localization for broadband integrated optics in three dimensions,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, E. Ozbay, B. Temelkuran, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “Guiding, bending, and splitting of electromagnetic waves in highly confined photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 63(8), 081107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Okano, A. Chutinan, and S. Noda, “Analysis and design of single-defect cavities in a three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 66(16), 165211 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic representation of a vertical waveguide composed of acceptor-type defects in a 3D PC. The red and black dashed lines in the lower, cross-sectional diagram respectively indicate acceptor-type defects and rods that are located at a distance near or behind the cross-section. (b) Schematic top views of the four types of stripe layers that comprise the PC structure. (c) Dispersion relation of the vertical waveguide, where az denotes the PC period in the vertical direction, corresponding to 1.2a. (d) Top-view SEM images of the unit structure composed of four layers, with acceptor-type defects incorporated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of the vertical waveguide in an eight-layered 3D PC simulated by FDTD analysis (upper panel) and measured experimentally (lower panel). The transmission intensities are normalized to the maximum values of ‘x-polarized’ light incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic cross-sectional representation of an L-shaped waveguide formed by connecting horizontal and vertical waveguides comprised of acceptor-type defects. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image of a fabricated nine-layered 3D PC (upper image) and top view of a four-layered 3D PC (lower image), both containing no defects. (c) Top-view SEM images of the fabricated vertical waveguide (upper image) and horizontal waveguide (lower image).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dispersion relation of the L-shaped waveguide with both the guided modes of the horizontal (blue lines) and vertical waveguides (red lines) superimposed. (b) Ex distributions of the higher-order mode of the horizontal waveguide in the x-y plane (left) and the x-z plane (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra of the L-shaped waveguide for ‘x-polarized’ (left panel) and ‘y-polarized’ (right panel) incident light. The red and gray lines correspond to the light incident on the horizontal waveguide and on the PC with no defects, respectively. The transmission intensities are normalized to the maximum value of ‘x-polarized’ light incident on the horizontal waveguide.

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