Abstract

In this paper, we presented fabrication of nickel based metal mold with 45° tilted surfaces on both ends of the channel waveguide through electroplating process. To obtain a precise 45° tilted angle, a 50µm thick SU-8 layer was UV exposed under de-ionized water, with repeatable error control of 0.5°. The polymeric waveguide array with 45° micro-mirrors, which is formed by a UV imprinting method with the fabricated metallic mold, shows total insertion losses around 4dB, propagation loss around 0.18dB/cm and 75% coupling efficiency.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 55–76 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).
  4. L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films 331(1), 303–308 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. H. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, J. W. Lim, K. Y. Jung, K. S. Cha, and B. S. Rho, “Chip- and board-level optical interconnections using rigid flexible optical electrical printed circuit boards,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8077–8083 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, and R. T. Chen, “Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2168–2176 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Wang, F. Liu, and A. Adibi, “45 Degree Polymer Micromirror Integration for Board-Level Three-Dimensional Optical Interconnects,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10514–10521 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12–14 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Hendrickx, J. Ü. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727–1729 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, F. Liu, and A. Adibi, “45 Degree Polymer Micromirror Integration for Board-Level Three-Dimensional Optical Interconnects,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10514–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, and R. T. Chen, “Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2168–2176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

2000

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films 331(1), 303–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Alduino, A.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Barnett, B.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Bi, H.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bihari, L.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bosman, E.

N. Hendrickx, J. Ü. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727–1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Braunisch, H.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Bristow,

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cha, K. S.

Chen, R. T.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, and R. T. Chen, “Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2168–2176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

Choi, J.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, and R. T. Chen, “Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(9), 2168–2176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chulchae Choi, Y. J.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Debaes, C.

N. Hendrickx, J. Ü. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727–1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

Heck, J.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Hendrickx, N.

N. Hendrickx, J. Ü. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727–1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hibb-Brenner, J.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films 331(1), 303–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. H.

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, J. W. Lim, K. Y. Jung, K. S. Cha, and B. S. Rho, “Chip- and board-level optical interconnections using rigid flexible optical electrical printed circuit boards,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8077–8083 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamura, S.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films 331(1), 303–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K. Y.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-J.

Lei Lin,

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. W.

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, J. W. Lim, K. Y. Jung, K. S. Cha, and B. S. Rho, “Chip- and board-level optical interconnections using rigid flexible optical electrical printed circuit boards,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8077–8083 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, L.

Liu, A.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Liu, B.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. S.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, D.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Magera, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mohanmmed, E.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Mooney, R.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Picor, M. K.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rho, B. S.

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, J. W. Lim, K. Y. Jung, K. S. Cha, and B. S. Rho, “Chip- and board-level optical interconnections using rigid flexible optical electrical printed circuit boards,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8077–8083 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, R.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

N. Hendrickx, J. Ü. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727–1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, T.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Tomaru, S.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films 331(1), 303–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Usui, M.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films 331(1), 303–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

N. Hendrickx, J. Ü. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727–1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Erps, J.

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Erps, J. Ü.

N. Hendrickx, J. Ü. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727–1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vandentop, G.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Wang, F.

Wang, L.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects From Waveguide Fabrication to Device Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wickman, B.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films 331(1), 303–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, I.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, “Scaling optoelectronic-VLSI circuits into the 21st century: A technology roadmap,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 55–76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, and B. S. Rho, “Polymeric Waveguide Film With Embedded Mirror for Multilayer Optical Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 12–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete Out-of-Plane Coupling Components for Printed Circuit Board-Level Optical Interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1753–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Hendrickx, J. Ü. Van Erps, E. Bosman, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Embedded Micromirror Inserts for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1727–1729 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Intel. Technol.

E. Mohanmmed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, and R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” J. Intel. Technol. 8(2), 115–127 (2004).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

R. T. Chen, Lei Lin, Y. J. Chulchae Choi, B. Liu, L. Bihari, S. Wu, R. Tang, B. Wickman, M. K. Picor, J. Hibb-Brenner, Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully Embedded Board level Guided-wave Optoelctronic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides for optical interconnections,” Thin Solid Films 331(1), 303–308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of whole process of (a) Ni mold fabrication and (b) polymeric waveguide imprint

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the tilted exposure on SU-8 in DI-water (θi andθr are the incident and refractive angles, respectively.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic process of SU-8 pre-mold with 45° surfaces fabrication

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top view of SU-8 pre-mold in (a) small magnification and (b) large magnification

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM pictures of SU-8 pre-mold cross section with 45° surfaces at the end of the waveguide in the direction (a) perpendicular and (b) parallel to the waveguide trench.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Top view SEM picture of the Ni hard mold with 12 channels on Si substrate. (b) Side view SEM picture of Ni hard mold on Si substrate. (c) Large magnification of the side view of 45 surfaces. The angle shown is 44.5°. (d) Surface profile image of the waveguide metal mold.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of waveguide device fabrication using UV imprint technique

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SEM image of the imprinted device before core material filling (inset is in larger magnification)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Output image from screen (b) total insertion loss (c) measured propagation loss and (d) calculated coupling loss for 45° TIR micro-mirrors.

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