Abstract

Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by scattering the light is one of the effective methods for large-area lighting applications. In this paper, we present a very simple and cost-effective method to rough the substrates and hence to scatter the light. By simply sand-blasting the edges and back-side surface of the glass substrates, a 20% improvement of forward efficiency has been demonstrated. Moreover, due to scattering effect, a constant color over all viewing angles and uniform light pattern with Lambertian distribution has been obtained. This simple and cost-effective method may be suitable for mass production of large-area OLEDs for lighting applications.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Peng, J. Sun, X. Zhu, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “High-efficiency microcavity diodes using silver anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bathelt, R.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biondo, V.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. J.

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buchhauser, D.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caria, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. H.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. H.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A. R.

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faircloth, T. J.

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gärditz, C.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, A.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. L.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hun, J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

H. Peng, J. Sun, X. Zhu, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “High-efficiency microcavity diodes using silver anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. C. M.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Hun, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. H.

M. H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melpignano, P.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murgia, M.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paetzold, R.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

H. Peng, J. Sun, X. Zhu, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “High-efficiency microcavity diodes using silver anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H. J.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shiang, J. J.

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sinesi, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

M. H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

H. Peng, J. Sun, X. Zhu, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “High-efficiency microcavity diodes using silver anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Syao, K. C.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wellmann, P.

R. Bathelt, D. Buchhauser, C. Gärditz, R. Paetzold, and P. Wellmann, “Light extraction from OLEDs for lighting applications through light scattering,” Org. Electron. 8(4), 293–299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Westenhöfer, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M.

H. Peng, J. Sun, X. Zhu, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “High-efficiency microcavity diodes using silver anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. L.

Y. H. Cheng, J. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, K. C. Syao, and M. C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

H. Peng, J. Sun, X. Zhu, X. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “High-efficiency microcavity diodes using silver anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. J.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zamboni, R.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope images of the glass substrates after sand-blasting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Current density – forward luminance - voltage and (b) EL efficiency - current density characteristics of the devices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic illustration of light propagation inside the devices; photos of devices fabricated on (b) edges sand-blasting substrates, (c) partial surface sand-blasting substrates and (d) untreated substrates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EL spectra of the devices fabricated on (a) untreated substrates and (b) sand-blasting substrates.

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