Abstract

We report on the observation of hysteresis effects that take place in the electro-optical response of a polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slice grating named POLICRYPS. Investigation of transmittance as a function of an applied external voltage reveals an hysteresis area that is strongly correlated to the delay between consecutive applications of square wave voltages of different amplitude. A suitable software has been implemented to control this delay: when it is long, results show a large hysteresis area, which can be reduced by diminishing the delay. In addition, correlation between this area and the frequency of the applied voltage is analyzed, taking into account that the effect of impurity ions migration is not negligible in the case of low frequencies.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. K. Fontecchio, C. C. Bowley, S. M. Chmura, S. Faris L. Le, and G. P. Crawford, "Multiplexed holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals," J. Opt. Technol. 68, 652 - 656 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 - 1076 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, "Optical characterization of polymer dispersed liquid crystals for holographic recording," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 - 9674 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. S. Drazic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, 1995).
  5. J. L. West, J. R. Kelly, K. Jewel, and Y. Ji, "Effect of polymer matrix glass transition temperature on polymer dispersed liquid crystal electro-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3238 - 3240 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Han, "Study of memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1482 -1487 (2006).
  7. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (policryps)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 - 1263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. De Sio, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, A. Veltri, A.V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, "In-situ optical control and stabilization of the curing process of policryps gratings," Appl. Opt. 45, 3721 - 3727 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  9. A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, and A. V. Sukhov, "Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid-crystal slices," Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 - 1407 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Policryps switchable holographic grating: a promising grating electro optical pixel for high resolution display application," J. Disp. Tech., IEEE/OSA 2, 38 - 51 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 - 2947 (1969).
  13. R. Caputo, A. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, "Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of new holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 21, 1939 - 1947 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. G. de Gennes, The physics of liquid crystals (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

2009 (1)

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, "Optical characterization of polymer dispersed liquid crystals for holographic recording," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 - 9674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1994 (1)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 - 1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. L. West, J. R. Kelly, K. Jewel, and Y. Ji, "Effect of polymer matrix glass transition temperature on polymer dispersed liquid crystal electro-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3238 - 3240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 - 2947 (1969).

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 - 1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, and A. V. Sukhov, "Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid-crystal slices," Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 - 1407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beccherelli, R.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowley, C. C.

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 - 1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, A. Veltri, A.V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, "In-situ optical control and stabilization of the curing process of policryps gratings," Appl. Opt. 45, 3721 - 3727 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (policryps)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 - 1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, and A. V. Sukhov, "Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid-crystal slices," Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 - 1407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, "Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of new holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 21, 1939 - 1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chmura, S. M.

Criante, L.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, "Optical characterization of polymer dispersed liquid crystals for holographic recording," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 - 9674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, and A. V. Sukhov, "Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid-crystal slices," Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 - 1407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Luca, A.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, A. Veltri, A.V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, "In-situ optical control and stabilization of the curing process of policryps gratings," Appl. Opt. 45, 3721 - 3727 (2006).
[PubMed]

De Sio, L.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, A. Veltri, A.V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, "In-situ optical control and stabilization of the curing process of policryps gratings," Appl. Opt. 45, 3721 - 3727 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (policryps)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 - 1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donisi, D.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fontecchio, A. K.

Gizzi, C.

Han, J.

J. Han, "Study of memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1482 -1487 (2006).

Jewel, K.

J. L. West, J. R. Kelly, K. Jewel, and Y. Ji, "Effect of polymer matrix glass transition temperature on polymer dispersed liquid crystal electro-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3238 - 3240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.

J. L. West, J. R. Kelly, K. Jewel, and Y. Ji, "Effect of polymer matrix glass transition temperature on polymer dispersed liquid crystal electro-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3238 - 3240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. R.

J. L. West, J. R. Kelly, K. Jewel, and Y. Ji, "Effect of polymer matrix glass transition temperature on polymer dispersed liquid crystal electro-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3238 - 3240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 - 2947 (1969).

Lucchetta, D. E.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, "Optical characterization of polymer dispersed liquid crystals for holographic recording," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 - 9674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 - 1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pezzi, L.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, "Optical characterization of polymer dispersed liquid crystals for holographic recording," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 - 9674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A.

R. Caputo, A. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, "Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of new holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 21, 1939 - 1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (policryps)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 - 1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, and A. V. Sukhov, "Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid-crystal slices," Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 - 1407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhov, A.V.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 - 1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 - 1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

Umeton, C. P.

R. Caputo, A. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, "Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of new holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 21, 1939 - 1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, A. Veltri, A.V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, "In-situ optical control and stabilization of the curing process of policryps gratings," Appl. Opt. 45, 3721 - 3727 (2006).
[PubMed]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material (policryps)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 - 1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, "Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of new holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 21, 1939 - 1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, R. Caputo, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, and A. V. Sukhov, "Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid-crystal slices," Opt. Lett. 29, 1405 - 1407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J. L.

J. L. West, J. R. Kelly, K. Jewel, and Y. Ji, "Effect of polymer matrix glass transition temperature on polymer dispersed liquid crystal electro-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3238 - 3240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. L. West, J. R. Kelly, K. Jewel, and Y. Ji, "Effect of polymer matrix glass transition temperature on polymer dispersed liquid crystal electro-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3238 - 3240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, "Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 - 1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 - 2947 (1969).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, and F. Simoni, "Optical characterization of polymer dispersed liquid crystals for holographic recording," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9669 - 9674 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

J. Han, "Study of memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1482 -1487 (2006).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. Caputo, A. De Luca, L. De Sio, L. Pezzi, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, A. Veltri, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Policryps: a liquid crystal composed nano/microstructure with a wide range of optical and electro-optical applications," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 1464 - 1477 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B (1)

R. Caputo, A. Sukhov, A. Veltri, and C. P. Umeton, "Characterization of the diffraction efficiency of new holographic gratings with a nematic film-polymer slice sequence structure," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. B 21, 1939 - 1947 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

P. G. de Gennes, The physics of liquid crystals (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

P. S. Drazic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, 1995).

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, "Policryps switchable holographic grating: a promising grating electro optical pixel for high resolution display application," J. Disp. Tech., IEEE/OSA 2, 38 - 51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the electro-optical characterization of POLICRYPS grating. P polarizer, HWP half wave plate, 0T and 1T zero and first diffraction order beams. The POLICRYPS image refers to a typical sample observed at the optical microscope in crossed polarizer condition.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Hystersis curve of the electro-optical response of a POLICRYPS grating (delay time τ manually set at about 20s)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical applied waveform for hysteresis characterization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Hystersis curve of the electro-optical response of a POLICRYPS grating. (a) delay time τ= 2s - (b) delay time τ= 500ms - (c) delay time τ= 100ms

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Hysteresis area versus the delay time for different frequency values of the external applied voltage.

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