Abstract

We report ultra-low-power (690fJ/bit) operation of an optical receiver consisting of a germanium-silicon waveguide detector intimately integrated with a receiver circuit and embedded in a clocked digital receiver. We show a wall-plug power efficiency of 690µW/Gbps for the photonic receiver made of a 130nm SOI CMOS Ge waveguide detector integrated to a 90nm Si CMOS receiver circuit. The hybrid CMOS photonic receiver achieved a sensitivity of −18.9dBm at 5Gbps for BER of 10−12. Enabled by a unique low-overhead bias refresh scheme, the receiver operates without the need for DC balanced transmission. Small signal measurements of the CMOS Ge waveguide detector showed a 3dB bandwidth of 10GHz at 1V of reverse bias, indicating that further increases in transmission rate and reductions of energy-per-bit will be possible.

© 2009 OSA

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2009

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to Silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

2006

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Ingels and S. J. Steyaert, “A 1-Gb/s, 0.7- m CMOS Optical Receiver with Full Rail-to-Rail Output Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 34(7), 971–977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. K. Woodward and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “1 Gb/s CMOS photoreceiver with integrated detector operating at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 34(12), 1252–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, and J. C. Campbell, “A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon NMOS optical receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 1035–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. K. Woodward and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical receivers for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 146–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. H. Hartman, M. K. Grace, and C. R. Ryan, “A monolithic silicon photodetector/amplifier IC for fiber and integrated optics application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(4), 729–738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

A. A. Abidi, “Gigahertz transresistance amplifiers in fine line NMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 19(6), 986–994 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abidi, A. A.

A. A. Abidi, “Gigahertz transresistance amplifiers in fine line NMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 19(6), 986–994 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aplin, G. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bond, S. W.

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brooke, N. M.

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, and J. C. Campbell, “A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon NMOS optical receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 1035–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Chen, L.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D’ Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Damlencourt, J.-F.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Fedeli, J.-M.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Ford, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grace, M. K.

D. H. Hartman, M. K. Grace, and C. R. Ryan, “A monolithic silicon photodetector/amplifier IC for fiber and integrated optics application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(4), 729–738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, D. H.

D. H. Hartman, M. K. Grace, and C. R. Ryan, “A monolithic silicon photodetector/amplifier IC for fiber and integrated optics application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(4), 729–738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ingels, M.

M. Ingels and S. J. Steyaert, “A 1-Gb/s, 0.7- m CMOS Optical Receiver with Full Rail-to-Rail Output Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 34(7), 971–977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst,

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kossivcs, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “1 Gb/s CMOS photoreceiver with integrated detector operating at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 34(12), 1252–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical receivers for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 146–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Leavitt, R. P.

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lecunff, Y.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Leibenguth, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, and J. C. Campbell, “A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon NMOS optical receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 1035–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Marris-Morini, D.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to Silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myunghee Lee,

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Qi, J.

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, and J. C. Campbell, “A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon NMOS optical receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 1035–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, C. R.

D. H. Hartman, M. K. Grace, and C. R. Ryan, “A monolithic silicon photodetector/amplifier IC for fiber and integrated optics application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(4), 729–738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, and J. C. Campbell, “A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon NMOS optical receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 1035–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, and J. C. Campbell, “A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon NMOS optical receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 1035–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steyaert, S. J.

M. Ingels and S. J. Steyaert, “A 1-Gb/s, 0.7- m CMOS Optical Receiver with Full Rail-to-Rail Output Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 34(7), 971–977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sungyung Jung, M.

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. J.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vendier, O.

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

Walker, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

T. K. Woodward and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “1 Gb/s CMOS photoreceiver with integrated detector operating at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 34(12), 1252–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical receivers for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 146–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, B. J. Tseng, S. P. Hui, R. E. Leibenguth, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, and R. L. Morrison, “Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 1 Tbit/s potential optical I/O bandwidth,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 894–895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “1 Gb/s CMOS photoreceiver with integrated detector operating at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 34(12), 1252–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, and J. C. Campbell, “A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon NMOS optical receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 1035–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical receivers for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 146–156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits

M. Ingels and S. J. Steyaert, “A 1-Gb/s, 0.7- m CMOS Optical Receiver with Full Rail-to-Rail Output Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 34(7), 971–977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Abidi, “Gigahertz transresistance amplifiers in fine line NMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 19(6), 986–994 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’. Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossivcs, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, and D. A. B. Miller, “3-D intcgration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Vendier, S. W. Bond, Myunghee Lee, M. Sungyung Jung, N. M. Brooke, Jokerst, and R. P. Leavitt, “Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 606–608 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. H. Hartman, M. K. Grace, and C. R. Ryan, “A monolithic silicon photodetector/amplifier IC for fiber and integrated optics application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(4), 729–738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-inculator waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 6252 (2008).

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computing microsystems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to Silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “An ultra-low power all CMOS Si photonic transmitter,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PDPB5, 2009.

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T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, and P. De Dobbelaere, “Monolithically Integrated High-Speed CMOS Photonic Transceivers,” Proceedings of IEEE conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2008), pp.362–364, 2008.

R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, R. Hopkins, E. Alon, N. Pinckney, P. Amberg, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Circuits for silicon photonics on a ‘macrochip’, ” IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009, (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flip-chip integrated chip-on-board silicon photonic all CMOS receiver. The blow-up picture shows array of CMOS Ge waveguide detectors with grating couplers for optical coupling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Small signal frequency response of the CMOS Ge waveguide photo detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematics of the receiver design. The TIA uses n-transistors in triode as feedback resistors. The integrator consists of an adder, two 8b registers storing calibration voltages, and an output DAC [23].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photo of the hybrid chip assembly, with VLSI receiver chip facing up . (b) is a photo of the integrated receiver, showing hybrid bonded VLSI receiver chip (facing up) and photodetector chip (facing down) wire bonded on a test PCB. (c) shows a side view of the hybrid “CMOS photonic-bridge”.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Receiver sensitivity measurement results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Receiver timing margin measurement results.

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