Abstract

We demonstrate the first synchronously in-well pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL). Depending on the cavity mismatch, laser pulses with a duration from 1 ps to 7 ps at a repetition rate of 76 MHz were generated directly from the laser at 860 nm. The application of extra-cavity pulse compression further shortened the pulse to a duration of 210 fs providing a peak power of 226 W.

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  1. A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, “Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(9), R75–R85 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, S. Elsmere, A. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “Ultrafast optical Stark mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2797–2799 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimentional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(6), 677–679 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 807–809 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(18), 1394–1396 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, M. Schmid, N. Langford, and A. I. Ferguson, “Femtosecond synchronously mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1810–1821 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1309–1318 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Time-Domain Vertical-External-Cavity Semiconductor Laser Simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(7), 588–596 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. J. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860–4862 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. W. Corzing, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, and L. A. Coldren, “Design of Fabry-Perot surface-emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1513–1524 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(9), 912–917 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(1), 187–192 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. P. A. Malcolm and A. I. Ferguson, “Synchronously pumped continuous-wave dye laser pumped by a mode-locked frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(11), 814–816 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. McConnell and E. Riis, “Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 557–563 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Time-Domain Vertical-External-Cavity Semiconductor Laser Simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(7), 588–596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, “Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(9), R75–R85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. McConnell and E. Riis, “Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 557–563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimentional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(1), 187–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1309–1318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(6), 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Corzing, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, and L. A. Coldren, “Design of Fabry-Perot surface-emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1513–1524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(9), 912–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abram, R.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Abram, R. H.

S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ackemann, T.

Aschwanden, A.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ausschnitt, C. P.

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(9), 912–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bellancourt, A. R.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benchabane, S.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1309–1318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(6), 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, T. M.

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brick, P.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. W. Corzing, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, and L. A. Coldren, “Design of Fabry-Perot surface-emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1513–1524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Corzing, S. W.

S. W. Corzing, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, and L. A. Coldren, “Design of Fabry-Perot surface-emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1513–1524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Daniell, G. J.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derickson, D. J.

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1309–1318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elsmere, S.

Farrer, I.

Ferguson, A. I.

S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. J. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, M. Schmid, N. Langford, and A. I. Ferguson, “Femtosecond synchronously mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1810–1821 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. A. Malcolm and A. I. Ferguson, “Synchronously pumped continuous-wave dye laser pumped by a mode-locked frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(11), 814–816 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, H. D.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, “Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(9), R75–R85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, S. R.

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 807–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(18), 1394–1396 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, K. S.

S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, “Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(9), R75–R85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geels, R. S.

S. W. Corzing, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, and L. A. Coldren, “Design of Fabry-Perot surface-emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1513–1524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hader, J.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hammons, B. E.

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(9), 912–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimentional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S. H.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, “Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(9), R75–R85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwamura, H.

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 807–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(18), 1394–1396 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(9), 912–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. B.

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1309–1318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(6), 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(18), 1394–1396 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 807–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Time-Domain Vertical-External-Cavity Semiconductor Laser Simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(7), 588–596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langford, N.

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutgen, S.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

Malcolm, G. P. A.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, G.

G. McConnell and E. Riis, “Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 557–563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McGinily, S. J.

S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. J. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McInerney, J. G.

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

Mirin, R.

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(6), 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitschke, F.

U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(1), 187–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Time-Domain Vertical-External-Cavity Semiconductor Laser Simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(7), 588–596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(1), 187–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, M.

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Quarterman, A.

Raja, M. Y. A.

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. J. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McConnell and E. Riis, “Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 557–563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Roberts, J. S.

S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaus, C. F.

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

Scott, J. W.

S. W. Corzing, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, and L. A. Coldren, “Design of Fabry-Perot surface-emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1513–1524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torabi-Goudarzi, F.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A.

Tropper, A. C.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, “Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(9), R75–R85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, G. J. Daniell, S. Elsmere, A. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “Ultrafast optical Stark mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2797–2799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, “Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(9), R75–R85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, W. H.

Xie, X. S.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimentional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(18), 1394–1396 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 807–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R. H.

S. W. Corzing, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, and L. A. Coldren, “Design of Fabry-Perot surface-emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1513–1524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zakharian, A. R.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimentional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

G. McConnell and E. Riis, “Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 557–563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(6), 677–679 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(8), 807–809 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1313–1315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Time-Domain Vertical-External-Cavity Semiconductor Laser Simulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(7), 588–596 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1309–1318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A. R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. A. Raja, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Osinsky, C. F. Schaus, J. G. McInerney, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1500–1512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Corzing, R. S. Geels, J. W. Scott, R. H. Yan, and L. A. Coldren, “Design of Fabry-Perot surface-emitting lasers with a periodic gain structure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(6), 1513–1524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. J. McGinily, R. H. Abram, K. S. Gardner, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and J. S. Roberts, “Novel gain medium design for short-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 445–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(9), 912–917 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, “Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(9), R75–R85 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(1), 187–192 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimentional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

, Schematic setup of the synchronously pumped VECSEL; output pulses were observed either directly or after compression by a PCF or a telecom fiber; the fiber coupling lenses L1 and L2 were anti-reflection coated aspheric lenses; for the PCF based compressor, L1, f=3.3 mm and NA=0.68 and L2, f=2.75 mm and NA=0.65; for the telecom fiber based compressor, L1, f=6.24 mm and NA=0.4 and L2, f=2.75 mm and NA=0.65. Details of the MQW gain structure are given in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

, VECSEL power and peak wavelength at different cavity lengths (a); autocorrelation traces (dotted curves) and their Lorentzian fits (solid curves) as well as the corresponding spectra of the VECSEL output at different cavity lengths (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

, Autocorrelation trace of the compressed pulse (a) with a PCF at −0.5 μm cavity length and (b) with an 8.5 m long telecom fiber at +1.5 μm cavity length; the insets are the corresponding spectra after the compression fiber.

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