Abstract

We report on the development of a flexible 2D optical fiber-based pressure sensing surface suitable for biomedical applications. The sensor comprises of highly-sensitive Fiber Bragg Grating elements embedded in a thin polymer sheet to form a 2x2 cm2 sensing pad with a minimal thickness of 2.5mm, while it is easily expandable in order to be used as a building block for larger surface sensors. The fabricated pad sensor was combined with a low physical dimension commercially available interrogation unit to enhance the portability features of the complete sensing system. Sensor mechanical properties allow for matching human skin behavior, while its operational performance exhibited a maximum fractional pressure sensitivity of 12 MPa−1 with a spatial resolution of 1×1cm2 and demonstrated no hysteresis and real time operation. These attractive operational and mechanical properties meet the requirements of various biomedical applications with respect to human skin pressure measurements, including amputee sockets, shoe sensors, wearable sensors, wheelchair seating-system sensors, hospital-bed monitoring sensors.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (2)

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Arkwright, N. G. Blenman, I. D. Underhill, S. A. Maunder, M. M. Szczesniak, P. G. Dinning, and I. J. Cook, “In-vivo demonstration of a high resolution optical fiber manometry catheter for diagnosis of gastrointestinal motility disorders,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4500–4508 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C.-Y. Huang, W.-C. Wang, W.-J. Wu, and W. R. Ledoux, “Composite Optical Bend Loss Sensor for Pressure and Shear Measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(11), 1554–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. Jewart, K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. M. Bails, S. P. Levitan, J. Canning, and I. V. Avdeev, “Sensitivity enhancement of fiber Bragg gratings to transverse stress by using microstructural fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pramanik, H. Saha, and U. Gangopadhyay, “Design optimization of a high performance silicon MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensor for biomedical applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(10), 2060–2066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Bansal, R. Scott, D. Stewart, and C. J. Cockerell, “Decubitus ulcers: a review of the literature,” Int. J. Dermatol. 44(10), 805–810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. J. Sheng, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, W.-F. Liu, and S.-S. Bor, “A lateral pressure sensor using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1146–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. C. Tjin, Y. Wang, X. Sun, P. Moyo, and J. M. W. Brownjohn, “Application of quasi-distributed fibre Bragg grating sensors in reinforced concrete structures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 583–589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, and B. C. B. Chu, “High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 618–619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. A. Polliack, R. C. Sieh, D. D. Craig, S. Landsberger, D. R. McNeil, and E. Ayyappa, “Scientific validation of two commercial pressure sensor systems for prosthetic socket fit,” Prosthet. Orthot. Int. 24(1), 63–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, “Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites,” Compos. Struct. 42(3), 217–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, M. A. Putnam, and A. D. Kersey, “Interrogation of 60 Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors with Microstrain Resolution Capability,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1393–1394 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arkwright, J. W.

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Avdeev, I. V.

Ayyappa, E.

A. A. Polliack, R. C. Sieh, D. D. Craig, S. Landsberger, D. R. McNeil, and E. Ayyappa, “Scientific validation of two commercial pressure sensor systems for prosthetic socket fit,” Prosthet. Orthot. Int. 24(1), 63–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bails, M. M.

Bansal, C.

C. Bansal, R. Scott, D. Stewart, and C. J. Cockerell, “Decubitus ulcers: a review of the literature,” Int. J. Dermatol. 44(10), 805–810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartelt, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bellemore, D. G.

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, M. A. Putnam, and A. D. Kersey, “Interrogation of 60 Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors with Microstrain Resolution Capability,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1393–1394 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blenman, N. G.

Bor, S.-S.

H. J. Sheng, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, W.-F. Liu, and S.-S. Bor, “A lateral pressure sensor using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1146–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brownjohn, J. M. W.

S. C. Tjin, Y. Wang, X. Sun, P. Moyo, and J. M. W. Brownjohn, “Application of quasi-distributed fibre Bragg grating sensors in reinforced concrete structures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 583–589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Chah, K.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

Chen, T.-C.

H. J. Sheng, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, W.-F. Liu, and S.-S. Bor, “A lateral pressure sensor using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1146–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, and B. C. B. Chu, “High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 618–619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choy, C. L.

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, “Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites,” Compos. Struct. 42(3), 217–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B. C. B.

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, and B. C. B. Chu, “High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 618–619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cockerell, C. J.

C. Bansal, R. Scott, D. Stewart, and C. J. Cockerell, “Decubitus ulcers: a review of the literature,” Int. J. Dermatol. 44(10), 805–810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, I. J.

Craig, D. D.

A. A. Polliack, R. C. Sieh, D. D. Craig, S. Landsberger, D. R. McNeil, and E. Ayyappa, “Scientific validation of two commercial pressure sensor systems for prosthetic socket fit,” Prosthet. Orthot. Int. 24(1), 63–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, M. A. Putnam, and A. D. Kersey, “Interrogation of 60 Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors with Microstrain Resolution Capability,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1393–1394 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De Waele, W.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Degrieck, J.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dinning, P. G.

Dong, X.

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, and B. C. B. Chu, “High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 618–619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Du, W.

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, “Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites,” Compos. Struct. 42(3), 217–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, and B. C. B. Chu, “High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 618–619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, M.-Y.

H. J. Sheng, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, W.-F. Liu, and S.-S. Bor, “A lateral pressure sensor using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1146–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, U.

C. Pramanik, H. Saha, and U. Gangopadhyay, “Design optimization of a high performance silicon MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensor for biomedical applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(10), 2060–2066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geernaert, T.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, and B. C. B. Chu, “High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 618–619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, W.-C. Wang, W.-J. Wu, and W. R. Ledoux, “Composite Optical Bend Loss Sensor for Pressure and Shear Measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(11), 1554–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jewart, C.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, M. A. Putnam, and A. D. Kersey, “Interrogation of 60 Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors with Microstrain Resolution Capability,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1393–1394 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Landsberger, S.

A. A. Polliack, R. C. Sieh, D. D. Craig, S. Landsberger, D. R. McNeil, and E. Ayyappa, “Scientific validation of two commercial pressure sensor systems for prosthetic socket fit,” Prosthet. Orthot. Int. 24(1), 63–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ledoux, W. R.

C.-Y. Huang, W.-C. Wang, W.-J. Wu, and W. R. Ledoux, “Composite Optical Bend Loss Sensor for Pressure and Shear Measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(11), 1554–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levitan, S. P.

Liu, W.-F.

H. J. Sheng, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, W.-F. Liu, and S.-S. Bor, “A lateral pressure sensor using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1146–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Y. Zhang, D. Feng, Z. Liu, Z. Guo, X. Dong, K. S. Chiang, and B. C. B. Chu, “High-sensitivity pressure sensor using a shielded polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 618–619 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luyckx, G.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maunder, S. A.

McMillen, B.

McNeil, D. R.

A. A. Polliack, R. C. Sieh, D. D. Craig, S. Landsberger, D. R. McNeil, and E. Ayyappa, “Scientific validation of two commercial pressure sensor systems for prosthetic socket fit,” Prosthet. Orthot. Int. 24(1), 63–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moyo, P.

S. C. Tjin, Y. Wang, X. Sun, P. Moyo, and J. M. W. Brownjohn, “Application of quasi-distributed fibre Bragg grating sensors in reinforced concrete structures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 583–589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nasilowski, T.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polliack, A. A.

A. A. Polliack, R. C. Sieh, D. D. Craig, S. Landsberger, D. R. McNeil, and E. Ayyappa, “Scientific validation of two commercial pressure sensor systems for prosthetic socket fit,” Prosthet. Orthot. Int. 24(1), 63–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pramanik, C.

C. Pramanik, H. Saha, and U. Gangopadhyay, “Design optimization of a high performance silicon MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensor for biomedical applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(10), 2060–2066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Davis, D. G. Bellemore, M. A. Putnam, and A. D. Kersey, “Interrogation of 60 Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors with Microstrain Resolution Capability,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1393–1394 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saha, H.

C. Pramanik, H. Saha, and U. Gangopadhyay, “Design optimization of a high performance silicon MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensor for biomedical applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(10), 2060–2066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R.

C. Bansal, R. Scott, D. Stewart, and C. J. Cockerell, “Decubitus ulcers: a review of the literature,” Int. J. Dermatol. 44(10), 805–810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, H. J.

H. J. Sheng, M.-Y. Fu, T.-C. Chen, W.-F. Liu, and S.-S. Bor, “A lateral pressure sensor using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1146–1148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sieh, R. C.

A. A. Polliack, R. C. Sieh, D. D. Craig, S. Landsberger, D. R. McNeil, and E. Ayyappa, “Scientific validation of two commercial pressure sensor systems for prosthetic socket fit,” Prosthet. Orthot. Int. 24(1), 63–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, D.

C. Bansal, R. Scott, D. Stewart, and C. J. Cockerell, “Decubitus ulcers: a review of the literature,” Int. J. Dermatol. 44(10), 805–810 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

S. C. Tjin, Y. Wang, X. Sun, P. Moyo, and J. M. W. Brownjohn, “Application of quasi-distributed fibre Bragg grating sensors in reinforced concrete structures,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 583–589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Szczesniak, M. M.

Tam, H. Y.

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, “Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites,” Compos. Struct. 42(3), 217–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. M.

W. Du, X. M. Tao, H. Y. Tam, and C. L. Choy, “Fundamentals and applications of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to textile structural composites,” Compos. Struct. 42(3), 217–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terryn, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal Load Sensing with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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http://www.ibsen.dk/products/im/I-MON-80D-Interrogation-monitor

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) PDMS 2D sensing surface with FBG-array optical sensing elements b) elementary 2D sensors used as building blocks for large scale surface sensors

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Schematic description of the fabrication procedure for the 2x2 FBG element sensor b) experimental setup of the optical circuitry

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power spectrum for the 4-FBG sensor: blue line: without any axial load, red line: vertical displacement applied to FBG3. A wavelength shift occurs b) b) Power loss trace for FBG1 for 400μm vibrating displacement applied c) Power loss vs vertical displacement for FBG1 (Ramp measurement) d) Power loss vs applied force for FBG1

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a)Schematic of 2x2 sensor and sliding under the pin b) Simultaneous measurement of 4 FBG normalized intensities vs the position of the pin.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

: a-d)Multipoint operation of 2D sensor, with the tables of corresponding power loss.

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