Abstract

We report on the development of photoaddressable cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) mixtures capable of large range color tuning as well as direct on-off electrical switching. The continuously photoaddressable CLC mixtures are based on a high HTP azo-containing chiral material mixed with an off-the-shelf nematic liquid crystal (QL9/E44). By polymer stabilizing the QL9/E44 mixture, it is demonstrated that the photoaddressable reflection of the notch can be switched on and off with an AC voltage. The novel combination of these effects has potential utility in lasing, dynamic notch filters, and spatial light modulators.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

L. Green, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, T. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality,” Org. Biomol. Chem. 7(19), 3930–3933 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kramer, W. J. Crookes-Goodson, and R. R. Naik, “The self-organizing properties of squid reflectin protein,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 533–538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Pieraccini, S. Masiero, G. P. Spada, and G. Gottarelli, “A new axially-chiral photochemical switch,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (5): 598–599 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Z. Li, P. Desai, R. B. Akins, G. Ventouris, and D. Voloschenko, “Electrically tunable color for full-color reflective displays,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 7–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical Control of the Macrostructure of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals by Means of Photoisomerization of Chiral Azobenzene Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 13(6), 1992–1997 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akins, R. B.

Z. Li, P. Desai, R. B. Akins, G. Ventouris, and D. Voloschenko, “Electrically tunable color for full-color reflective displays,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 7–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bricker, R. L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T.

L. Green, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, T. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality,” Org. Biomol. Chem. 7(19), 3930–3933 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chanishvili, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L. C.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chilaya, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crookes-Goodson, W. J.

R. M. Kramer, W. J. Crookes-Goodson, and R. R. Naik, “The self-organizing properties of squid reflectin protein,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 533–538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desai, P.

Z. Li, P. Desai, R. B. Akins, G. Ventouris, and D. Voloschenko, “Electrically tunable color for full-color reflective displays,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 7–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gottarelli, G.

S. Pieraccini, S. Masiero, G. P. Spada, and G. Gottarelli, “A new axially-chiral photochemical switch,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (5): 598–599 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, L.

L. Green, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, T. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality,” Org. Biomol. Chem. 7(19), 3930–3933 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanlon, R. T.

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khizhnyak, A.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, R. M.

R. M. Kramer, W. J. Crookes-Goodson, and R. R. Naik, “The self-organizing properties of squid reflectin protein,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 533–538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurihara, S.

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical Control of the Macrostructure of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals by Means of Photoisomerization of Chiral Azobenzene Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 13(6), 1992–1997 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kutulya, L.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Green, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, T. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality,” Org. Biomol. Chem. 7(19), 3930–3933 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

L. Green, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, T. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality,” Org. Biomol. Chem. 7(19), 3930–3933 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, P. Desai, R. B. Akins, G. Ventouris, and D. Voloschenko, “Electrically tunable color for full-color reflective displays,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 7–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masiero, S.

S. Pieraccini, S. Masiero, G. P. Spada, and G. Gottarelli, “A new axially-chiral photochemical switch,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (5): 598–599 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathger, L. M.

Naik, R. R.

R. M. Kramer, W. J. Crookes-Goodson, and R. R. Naik, “The self-organizing properties of squid reflectin protein,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 533–538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Nomiyama, S.

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical Control of the Macrostructure of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals by Means of Photoisomerization of Chiral Azobenzene Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 13(6), 1992–1997 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, T.

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical Control of the Macrostructure of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals by Means of Photoisomerization of Chiral Azobenzene Molecules,” Chem. Mater. 13(6), 1992–1997 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petriashvili, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pieraccini, S.

S. Pieraccini, S. Masiero, G. P. Spada, and G. Gottarelli, “A new axially-chiral photochemical switch,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (5): 598–599 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Resihetnyak, V.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiyanovskaya, I.

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikharulidze, D.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409(1), 209–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spada, G. P.

S. Pieraccini, S. Masiero, G. P. Spada, and G. Gottarelli, “A new axially-chiral photochemical switch,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (5): 598–599 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, M. O.

Sutherland, R. L.

Tabiryan, N. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamaoki, N.

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urbas, A.

L. Green, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, T. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality,” Org. Biomol. Chem. 7(19), 3930–3933 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbas, A. M.

Venkataraman, N.

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ventouris, G.

Z. Li, P. Desai, R. B. Akins, G. Ventouris, and D. Voloschenko, “Electrically tunable color for full-color reflective displays,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 7–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vinvogradov, V.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Voloschenko, D.

Z. Li, P. Desai, R. B. Akins, G. Ventouris, and D. Voloschenko, “Electrically tunable color for full-color reflective displays,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 7–13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, T.

L. Green, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, T. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality,” Org. Biomol. Chem. 7(19), 3930–3933 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Phototunable Azobenzene Cholesteric Liquid Crystals with 2000 nm Range,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(21), 3484–3488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc.

Q. Li, L. Green, N. Venkataraman, I. Shiyanovskaya, A. Khan, A. Urbas, and J. W. Doane, “Reversible photoswitchable axially chiral dopants with high helical twisting power,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(43), 12908–12909 (2007).
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V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Phototuning and dark relaxation for a polymer stabilized CLC mixture based on the high HTP chiral dopant QL9 (inset) and the nematic liquid crystal E44. The temporal dependence of the Bragg reflection during UV-directed tuning (1 mW/cm2). b) and c) AC switching of QL9/E44 CLC (b) and PSCLC (c). Original spectrum (i) is driven to focal conic texture (ii) with application of low voltage AC. Increasing AC voltage shifts from focal conic texture to an increasingly homeotropic (iii) alignment. Application of a sufficient AC voltage (210 V AC – PSCLC, 125V AC – CLC) drives the sample from planar (i) to homeotropic state (iv). With removal of the AC voltage, the CLC transitions back to the focal conic state (b-ii) while the PSCLC sample returns to the reflective state (c-i).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Transmission spectra and b) pictorial demonstration of the phototuning and switching of a QL9 (8 wt%)/E44 PSCLC. In both, the QL9/E44 PSCLC is tuned with UV light shifting the reflection from the blue to the infrared. From each spectral position, the reflection can be driven to the clear state by application of a 210 V AC. Removal of the 210 V AC returns the PSCLC from the clear state (▬ in a, “210 V AC” in b) to the spectrum observed before applied voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Using a photomask, the letters “AFRL” are written into the QL9/E44 PSCLC (originally reflecting green). The area outside the “AFRL” mask is tuned to reflect orange-red. Application of 210 V AC switches the entire cell on and off. With removal of the voltage, the image is restored retaining its content. See also MOVIE1.

Equations (1)

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λ b = n P

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