Abstract

In vivo microcirculatory imaging facilitates the fundamental understanding of many major diseases. However, existing techniques generally require invasive procedures or exogenous contrast agents, which perturb the intrinsic physiology of the microcirculation. Here, we report on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) for noninvasive label-free microcirculatory imaging at cellular levels. For the first time, OR-PAM demonstrates quantification of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in single microvessels down to capillaries. Using this technique, we imaged several important yet elusive microhemodynamic activities—including vasomotion and vasodilation—in small animals in vivo. OR-PAM enables functional volumetric imaging of the intact microcirculation, thereby providing greatly improved accuracy and versatility for broad biological and clinical applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. E. Tooke, "Microvasculature in diabetes," Cardiovasc. Res. 32, 764-771 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. Struijker-Boudier, "Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment?," Circulation 104, 735-740 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. Bongard, H. Bounameaux, and B. Fagrell, "Effects of oxygen inhalation on skin microcirculation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease," Circulation 86, 878-886 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  5. D. M. McDonald and P. Baluk, "Significance of blood vessel leakiness in cancer," Cancer Res. 62, 5381-5385 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  6. L. Kuo, M. J. Davis, M. S. Cannon, and W. M. Chilian, "Pathophysiological Consequences of Atherosclerosis Extend into the Coronary Microcirculation - Restoration of Endothelium-Dependent Responses by L-Arginine," Circ. Res. 70, 465-476 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  7. D. Hasdai, R. J. Gibbons, D. R. Holmes, Jr., S. T. Higano, and A. Lerman, "Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with myocardial perfusion defects," Circulation 96, 3390-3395 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  8. C. Iadecola, "Neurovascular regulation in the normal brain and in Alzheimer's disease," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 347-360 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. M. McDonald, and P. L. Choyke, "Imaging of angiogenesis: from microscope to clinic," Nature Med. 9, 713-725 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Iga, S. Sarkar, K. M. Sales, M. C. Winslet, and A. M. Seifalian, "Quantitating therapeutic disruption of tumor blood flow with intravital video microscopy," Cancer Res. 66, 11517-11519 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, "Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741-15746 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer," Int. J. Cancer 123, 1979-1990 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Bauer, S. Kofler, M. Thiel, S. Eifert, and F. Christ, "Monitoring of the sublingual microcirculation in cardiac surgery using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: preliminary results," Anesthesiology 107, 939-945 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy," Nature Protoc. 2, 797-804 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Aalkaer, and H. Nilsson, "Vasomotion: cellular background for the oscillator and for the synchronization of smooth muscle cells," Br. J. Pharmacol. 144, 605-616 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Nilsson, and C. Aalkjaer, "Vasomotion: mechanisms and physiological importance," Mol. Interv. 3, 79-89, 51 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Coppini, and M. Intaglietta, "Hypoxia- or hyperoxia-induced changes in arteriolar vasomotion in skeletal muscle microcirculation," Am. J. Physiol. 260, H362-372 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  23. K. Lorentz, A. Zayas-Santiago, S. Tummala, and J. J. Derwent, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-particle tracking method to assess blood velocity during hypoxia and hyperoxia," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 253-261 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. V. Wang, "Prospects of photoacoustic tomography," Med. Phys. 35, 5758-5767 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer," Int. J. Cancer 123, 1979-1990 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, "Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries," Opt. Lett. 33, 929-931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lorentz, A. Zayas-Santiago, S. Tummala, and J. J. Derwent, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-particle tracking method to assess blood velocity during hypoxia and hyperoxia," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 253-261 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, "Prospects of photoacoustic tomography," Med. Phys. 35, 5758-5767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bauer, S. Kofler, M. Thiel, S. Eifert, and F. Christ, "Monitoring of the sublingual microcirculation in cardiac surgery using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: preliminary results," Anesthesiology 107, 939-945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy," Nature Protoc. 2, 797-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Iga, S. Sarkar, K. M. Sales, M. C. Winslet, and A. M. Seifalian, "Quantitating therapeutic disruption of tumor blood flow with intravital video microscopy," Cancer Res. 66, 11517-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Aalkaer, and H. Nilsson, "Vasomotion: cellular background for the oscillator and for the synchronization of smooth muscle cells," Br. J. Pharmacol. 144, 605-616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Iadecola, "Neurovascular regulation in the normal brain and in Alzheimer's disease," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 347-360 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. M. McDonald, and P. L. Choyke, "Imaging of angiogenesis: from microscope to clinic," Nature Med. 9, 713-725 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. M. McDonald and P. Baluk, "Significance of blood vessel leakiness in cancer," Cancer Res. 62, 5381-5385 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. Struijker-Boudier, "Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment?," Circulation 104, 735-740 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, "Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741-15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. Hasdai, R. J. Gibbons, D. R. Holmes, Jr., S. T. Higano, and A. Lerman, "Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with myocardial perfusion defects," Circulation 96, 3390-3395 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. E. Tooke, "Microvasculature in diabetes," Cardiovasc. Res. 32, 764-771 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

O. Bongard, H. Bounameaux, and B. Fagrell, "Effects of oxygen inhalation on skin microcirculation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease," Circulation 86, 878-886 (1992).
[PubMed]

L. Kuo, M. J. Davis, M. S. Cannon, and W. M. Chilian, "Pathophysiological Consequences of Atherosclerosis Extend into the Coronary Microcirculation - Restoration of Endothelium-Dependent Responses by L-Arginine," Circ. Res. 70, 465-476 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Coppini, and M. Intaglietta, "Hypoxia- or hyperoxia-induced changes in arteriolar vasomotion in skeletal muscle microcirculation," Am. J. Physiol. 260, H362-372 (1991).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

M. D. Stern, "In vivo evaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering," Nature 254, 56-58 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aalkaer, C.

C. Aalkaer, and H. Nilsson, "Vasomotion: cellular background for the oscillator and for the synchronization of smooth muscle cells," Br. J. Pharmacol. 144, 605-616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aalkjaer, C.

H. Nilsson, and C. Aalkjaer, "Vasomotion: mechanisms and physiological importance," Mol. Interv. 3, 79-89, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosio, G.

B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. Struijker-Boudier, "Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment?," Circulation 104, 735-740 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arant, C. B.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bairey Merz, C. N.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baluk, P.

D. M. McDonald and P. Baluk, "Significance of blood vessel leakiness in cancer," Cancer Res. 62, 5381-5385 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bauer, A.

A. Bauer, S. Kofler, M. Thiel, S. Eifert, and F. Christ, "Monitoring of the sublingual microcirculation in cardiac surgery using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: preliminary results," Anesthesiology 107, 939-945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertuglia, S.

S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Coppini, and M. Intaglietta, "Hypoxia- or hyperoxia-induced changes in arteriolar vasomotion in skeletal muscle microcirculation," Am. J. Physiol. 260, H362-372 (1991).
[PubMed]

Bongard, O.

O. Bongard, H. Bounameaux, and B. Fagrell, "Effects of oxygen inhalation on skin microcirculation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease," Circulation 86, 878-886 (1992).
[PubMed]

Bouma, G. J.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bounameaux, H.

O. Bongard, H. Bounameaux, and B. Fagrell, "Effects of oxygen inhalation on skin microcirculation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease," Circulation 86, 878-886 (1992).
[PubMed]

Cannon, M. S.

L. Kuo, M. J. Davis, M. S. Cannon, and W. M. Chilian, "Pathophysiological Consequences of Atherosclerosis Extend into the Coronary Microcirculation - Restoration of Endothelium-Dependent Responses by L-Arginine," Circ. Res. 70, 465-476 (1992).
[PubMed]

Chilian, W. M.

L. Kuo, M. J. Davis, M. S. Cannon, and W. M. Chilian, "Pathophysiological Consequences of Atherosclerosis Extend into the Coronary Microcirculation - Restoration of Endothelium-Dependent Responses by L-Arginine," Circ. Res. 70, 465-476 (1992).
[PubMed]

Choyke, P. L.

D. M. McDonald, and P. L. Choyke, "Imaging of angiogenesis: from microscope to clinic," Nature Med. 9, 713-725 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christ, F.

A. Bauer, S. Kofler, M. Thiel, S. Eifert, and F. Christ, "Monitoring of the sublingual microcirculation in cardiac surgery using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: preliminary results," Anesthesiology 107, 939-945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colantuoni, A.

S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Coppini, and M. Intaglietta, "Hypoxia- or hyperoxia-induced changes in arteriolar vasomotion in skeletal muscle microcirculation," Am. J. Physiol. 260, H362-372 (1991).
[PubMed]

Coppini, G.

S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Coppini, and M. Intaglietta, "Hypoxia- or hyperoxia-induced changes in arteriolar vasomotion in skeletal muscle microcirculation," Am. J. Physiol. 260, H362-372 (1991).
[PubMed]

Davis, M. J.

L. Kuo, M. J. Davis, M. S. Cannon, and W. M. Chilian, "Pathophysiological Consequences of Atherosclerosis Extend into the Coronary Microcirculation - Restoration of Endothelium-Dependent Responses by L-Arginine," Circ. Res. 70, 465-476 (1992).
[PubMed]

Denk, W.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, "Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741-15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derwent, J. J.

K. Lorentz, A. Zayas-Santiago, S. Tummala, and J. J. Derwent, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-particle tracking method to assess blood velocity during hypoxia and hyperoxia," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 253-261 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eifert, S.

A. Bauer, S. Kofler, M. Thiel, S. Eifert, and F. Christ, "Monitoring of the sublingual microcirculation in cardiac surgery using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: preliminary results," Anesthesiology 107, 939-945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fagrell, B.

O. Bongard, H. Bounameaux, and B. Fagrell, "Effects of oxygen inhalation on skin microcirculation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease," Circulation 86, 878-886 (1992).
[PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, M.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbons, R. J.

D. Hasdai, R. J. Gibbons, D. R. Holmes, Jr., S. T. Higano, and A. Lerman, "Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with myocardial perfusion defects," Circulation 96, 3390-3395 (1997).
[PubMed]

Groner, W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Handberg, E.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, A. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasdai, D.

D. Hasdai, R. J. Gibbons, D. R. Holmes, Jr., S. T. Higano, and A. Lerman, "Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with myocardial perfusion defects," Circulation 96, 3390-3395 (1997).
[PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, "Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741-15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higano, S. T.

D. Hasdai, R. J. Gibbons, D. R. Holmes, Jr., S. T. Higano, and A. Lerman, "Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with myocardial perfusion defects," Circulation 96, 3390-3395 (1997).
[PubMed]

Holmes, D. R.

D. Hasdai, R. J. Gibbons, D. R. Holmes, Jr., S. T. Higano, and A. Lerman, "Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with myocardial perfusion defects," Circulation 96, 3390-3395 (1997).
[PubMed]

Hu, S.

Iadecola, C.

C. Iadecola, "Neurovascular regulation in the normal brain and in Alzheimer's disease," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 347-360 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iga, A. M.

A. M. Iga, S. Sarkar, K. M. Sales, M. C. Winslet, and A. M. Seifalian, "Quantitating therapeutic disruption of tumor blood flow with intravital video microscopy," Cancer Res. 66, 11517-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ince, C.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Intaglietta, M.

S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Coppini, and M. Intaglietta, "Hypoxia- or hyperoxia-induced changes in arteriolar vasomotion in skeletal muscle microcirculation," Am. J. Physiol. 260, H362-372 (1991).
[PubMed]

Javier, D. J.

M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer," Int. J. Cancer 123, 1979-1990 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, B. D.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerensky, R. A.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, "Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741-15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kofler, S.

A. Bauer, S. Kofler, M. Thiel, S. Eifert, and F. Christ, "Monitoring of the sublingual microcirculation in cardiac surgery using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: preliminary results," Anesthesiology 107, 939-945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, L.

L. Kuo, M. J. Davis, M. S. Cannon, and W. M. Chilian, "Pathophysiological Consequences of Atherosclerosis Extend into the Coronary Microcirculation - Restoration of Endothelium-Dependent Responses by L-Arginine," Circ. Res. 70, 465-476 (1992).
[PubMed]

Laemmel, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gargasson, J. F.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Goualher, G.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerman, A.

D. Hasdai, R. J. Gibbons, D. R. Holmes, Jr., S. T. Higano, and A. Lerman, "Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with myocardial perfusion defects," Circulation 96, 3390-3395 (1997).
[PubMed]

Levy, B. I.

B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. Struijker-Boudier, "Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment?," Circulation 104, 735-740 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorentz, K.

K. Lorentz, A. Zayas-Santiago, S. Tummala, and J. J. Derwent, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-particle tracking method to assess blood velocity during hypoxia and hyperoxia," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 253-261 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, "Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries," Opt. Lett. 33, 929-931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy," Nature Protoc. 2, 797-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, D. M.

D. M. McDonald, and P. L. Choyke, "Imaging of angiogenesis: from microscope to clinic," Nature Med. 9, 713-725 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. McDonald and P. Baluk, "Significance of blood vessel leakiness in cancer," Cancer Res. 62, 5381-5385 (2002).
[PubMed]

McGorray, S. P.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messmer, K.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitra, P. P.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, "Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741-15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadeau, R. G.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, H.

C. Aalkaer, and H. Nilsson, "Vasomotion: cellular background for the oscillator and for the synchronization of smooth muscle cells," Br. J. Pharmacol. 144, 605-616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Nilsson, and C. Aalkjaer, "Vasomotion: mechanisms and physiological importance," Mol. Interv. 3, 79-89, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Olson, M. B.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepine, C. J.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perchant, A.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer," Int. J. Cancer 123, 1979-1990 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pries, A. R.

B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. Struijker-Boudier, "Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment?," Circulation 104, 735-740 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer," Int. J. Cancer 123, 1979-1990 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sales, K. M.

A. M. Iga, S. Sarkar, K. M. Sales, M. C. Winslet, and A. M. Seifalian, "Quantitating therapeutic disruption of tumor blood flow with intravital video microscopy," Cancer Res. 66, 11517-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarkar, S.

A. M. Iga, S. Sarkar, K. M. Sales, M. C. Winslet, and A. M. Seifalian, "Quantitating therapeutic disruption of tumor blood flow with intravital video microscopy," Cancer Res. 66, 11517-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifalian, A. M.

A. M. Iga, S. Sarkar, K. M. Sales, M. C. Winslet, and A. M. Seifalian, "Quantitating therapeutic disruption of tumor blood flow with intravital video microscopy," Cancer Res. 66, 11517-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharaf, B. L.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, K. M.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sopko, G.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, M. D.

M. D. Stern, "In vivo evaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering," Nature 254, 56-58 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Struijker-Boudier, H. A.

B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. Struijker-Boudier, "Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment?," Circulation 104, 735-740 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

A. Bauer, S. Kofler, M. Thiel, S. Eifert, and F. Christ, "Monitoring of the sublingual microcirculation in cardiac surgery using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: preliminary results," Anesthesiology 107, 939-945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tooke, J. E.

J. E. Tooke, "Microvasculature in diabetes," Cardiovasc. Res. 32, 764-771 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tummala, S.

K. Lorentz, A. Zayas-Santiago, S. Tummala, and J. J. Derwent, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-particle tracking method to assess blood velocity during hypoxia and hyperoxia," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 253-261 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vicaut, E.

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Mering, G. O.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang, "Prospects of photoacoustic tomography," Med. Phys. 35, 5758-5767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, "Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries," Opt. Lett. 33, 929-931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy," Nature Protoc. 2, 797-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wessel, T. R.

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkelman, J. W.

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winslet, M. C.

A. M. Iga, S. Sarkar, K. M. Sales, M. C. Winslet, and A. M. Seifalian, "Quantitating therapeutic disruption of tumor blood flow with intravital video microscopy," Cancer Res. 66, 11517-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayas-Santiago, A.

K. Lorentz, A. Zayas-Santiago, S. Tummala, and J. J. Derwent, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-particle tracking method to assess blood velocity during hypoxia and hyperoxia," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 253-261 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, "Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries," Opt. Lett. 33, 929-931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy," Nature Protoc. 2, 797-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

K. Lorentz, A. Zayas-Santiago, S. Tummala, and J. J. Derwent, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-particle tracking method to assess blood velocity during hypoxia and hyperoxia," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 253-261 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

S. Bertuglia, A. Colantuoni, G. Coppini, and M. Intaglietta, "Hypoxia- or hyperoxia-induced changes in arteriolar vasomotion in skeletal muscle microcirculation," Am. J. Physiol. 260, H362-372 (1991).
[PubMed]

Anesthesiology (1)

A. Bauer, S. Kofler, M. Thiel, S. Eifert, and F. Christ, "Monitoring of the sublingual microcirculation in cardiac surgery using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: preliminary results," Anesthesiology 107, 939-945 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Pharmacol. (1)

C. Aalkaer, and H. Nilsson, "Vasomotion: cellular background for the oscillator and for the synchronization of smooth muscle cells," Br. J. Pharmacol. 144, 605-616 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Res. (2)

D. M. McDonald and P. Baluk, "Significance of blood vessel leakiness in cancer," Cancer Res. 62, 5381-5385 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. M. Iga, S. Sarkar, K. M. Sales, M. C. Winslet, and A. M. Seifalian, "Quantitating therapeutic disruption of tumor blood flow with intravital video microscopy," Cancer Res. 66, 11517-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardiovasc. Res. (1)

J. E. Tooke, "Microvasculature in diabetes," Cardiovasc. Res. 32, 764-771 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ. Res. (1)

L. Kuo, M. J. Davis, M. S. Cannon, and W. M. Chilian, "Pathophysiological Consequences of Atherosclerosis Extend into the Coronary Microcirculation - Restoration of Endothelium-Dependent Responses by L-Arginine," Circ. Res. 70, 465-476 (1992).
[PubMed]

Circulation (4)

D. Hasdai, R. J. Gibbons, D. R. Holmes, Jr., S. T. Higano, and A. Lerman, "Coronary endothelial dysfunction in humans is associated with myocardial perfusion defects," Circulation 96, 3390-3395 (1997).
[PubMed]

B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. Struijker-Boudier, "Microcirculation in hypertension: a new target for treatment?," Circulation 104, 735-740 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Bongard, H. Bounameaux, and B. Fagrell, "Effects of oxygen inhalation on skin microcirculation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease," Circulation 86, 878-886 (1992).
[PubMed]

G. O. von Mering, C. B. Arant, T. R. Wessel, S. P. McGorray, C. N. Bairey Merz, B. L. Sharaf, K. M. Smith, M. B. Olson, B. D. Johnson, G. Sopko, E. Handberg, C. J. Pepine, and R. A. Kerensky, "Abnormal coronary vasomotion as a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events in women: results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)," Circulation 109, 722-725 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer," Int. J. Cancer 123, 1979-1990 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vasc. Res. (1)

E. Laemmel, M. Genet, G. Le Goualher, A. Perchant, J. F. Le Gargasson, and E. Vicaut, "Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (Cell-viZio) facilitates extended imaging in the field of microcirculation. A comparison with intravital microscopy," J. Vasc. Res. 41, 400-411 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

L. V. Wang, "Prospects of photoacoustic tomography," Med. Phys. 35, 5758-5767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

C. Iadecola, "Neurovascular regulation in the normal brain and in Alzheimer's disease," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 347-360 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. D. Stern, "In vivo evaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering," Nature 254, 56-58 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, "Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 24, 848-851 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Med. (2)

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation," Nature Med. 5, 1209-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. McDonald, and P. L. Choyke, "Imaging of angiogenesis: from microscope to clinic," Nature Med. 9, 713-725 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Protoc. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy," Nature Protoc. 2, 797-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, "Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 184501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, "Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 15741-15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Nilsson, and C. Aalkjaer, "Vasomotion: mechanisms and physiological importance," Mol. Interv. 3, 79-89, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (16384 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (23502 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A representative microvascular network in a nude mouse ear imaged in vivo by OR-PAM. (a) MAP image. (b) 3D morphology (Media 1).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structural and functional microvascular imaging by OR-PAM in a nude mouse ear in vivo. (a) Structural image acquired at 570 nm. (b) Vessel-by-vessel sO2 mapping based on dual-wavelength (570 nm and 578 nm) measurements. The calculated sO2 values are shown in the color bar. PA: photoacoustic signal amplitude. A1: a representative arteriole; V1: a representative venule. Yellow dashed line: the B-scan position for Fig. 3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Vasomotion and vasodilation in response to switching the physiological state between systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia. (a) B-scan monitoring of the changes in the cross section of arteriole A1 (Media 2). (b) B-scan monitoring of the changes in the cross section of venule V1. (c) Changes in arteriolar and venous diameters in response to changes in physiological state (raw data were smoothed via 60-point moving averaging to isolate the effect of vasodilation). (d) Power spectrum of the arteriolar vasomotion tone. (e) Power spectrum of the venous vasomotion tone.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of modern high-resolution microvascular imaging techniques. CM: confocal microscopy; TPM: two-photon microscopy.

Metrics