Abstract

We present a laser operating at 517 nm for our Magnesium laser-cooling and atomic clock project. A two-stage Yb-doped fiber amplifier (YDFA) system generates more than 1.5 W of 1034 nm light when seeded with a 15 mW diode laser. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide, we obtained more than 40 mW of 517 nm output power by single pass frequency doubling. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy of metastable magnesium atoms could be used to stabilize the 517 nm laser to an absolute frequency within 1 MHz.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, E. A. Donley, J. H. Shirley, and T. E. Parker, "NIST-F1: recent improvements and accuracy evaluations," Metrologia 42, 411-422 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "Improved uncertainty budget for optical frequency measurements with microkelvin neutral atoms: Results for a high-stability 40Ca optical frequency standard," Appl. Phys. B 85, 31-44 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Takamoto and H. Katori, "Spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr in an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223001 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. C. Chui, S. Y. Shaw, M. S. Ko, Y. W. Liu, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, W. Y. Cheng, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, "Iodine stabilization of a diode laser in the optical communication band," Opt. Lett. 30, 646-648 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. G. Giusfredi, A. Godone, E. Bava, and C. Novero, "Metastable atoms in a Mg beam: Excitation dynamics and velocity distribution," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1279-1285 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Novera and A. Godone, "Wavelength and Isotopic shift measurements of the 3S (3s4s) - 3P (3s3p) MgI transitions," Z. Phys. D 17, 33-35 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Hallstadius and J. E. Hansen, "Experimental Determination of Isotope Shifts in MgI," Z. Phys. A 285, 365-370 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Y. Cheng, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, and C. C. Chou, "Molecular Iodine spectra and laser stabilization by frequency-doubled 1534nm diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3055-3058 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "Improved uncertainty budget for optical frequency measurements with microkelvin neutral atoms: Results for a high-stability 40Ca optical frequency standard," Appl. Phys. B 85, 31-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, E. A. Donley, J. H. Shirley, and T. E. Parker, "NIST-F1: recent improvements and accuracy evaluations," Metrologia 42, 411-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Cheng, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, and C. C. Chou, "Molecular Iodine spectra and laser stabilization by frequency-doubled 1534nm diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3055-3058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chui, S. Y. Shaw, M. S. Ko, Y. W. Liu, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, W. Y. Cheng, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, "Iodine stabilization of a diode laser in the optical communication band," Opt. Lett. 30, 646-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Takamoto and H. Katori, "Spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr in an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. Novera and A. Godone, "Wavelength and Isotopic shift measurements of the 3S (3s4s) - 3P (3s3p) MgI transitions," Z. Phys. D 17, 33-35 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. Giusfredi, A. Godone, E. Bava, and C. Novero, "Metastable atoms in a Mg beam: Excitation dynamics and velocity distribution," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1279-1285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1978

L. Hallstadius and J. E. Hansen, "Experimental Determination of Isotope Shifts in MgI," Z. Phys. A 285, 365-370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abgrall, M.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baillard, X.

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, P. R.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barber, Z. W.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bava, E.

G. Giusfredi, A. Godone, E. Bava, and C. Novero, "Metastable atoms in a Mg beam: Excitation dynamics and velocity distribution," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1279-1285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, S.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, M. M.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brusch, A.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cacciapuoti, L.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, G. K.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carman, R. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. Y.

H. C. Chui, S. Y. Shaw, M. S. Ko, Y. W. Liu, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, W. Y. Cheng, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, "Iodine stabilization of a diode laser in the optical communication band," Opt. Lett. 30, 646-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Cheng, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, and C. C. Chou, "Molecular Iodine spectra and laser stabilization by frequency-doubled 1534nm diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3055-3058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. C.

W. Y. Cheng, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, and C. C. Chou, "Molecular Iodine spectra and laser stabilization by frequency-doubled 1534nm diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3055-3058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chui, H. C.

Clairon, A.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Miranda, M. H. G.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degenhardt, C.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Donley, E. A.

T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, E. A. Donley, J. H. Shirley, and T. E. Parker, "NIST-F1: recent improvements and accuracy evaluations," Metrologia 42, 411-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Foreman, S. M.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fouche, M.

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giusfredi, G.

G. Giusfredi, A. Godone, E. Bava, and C. Novero, "Metastable atoms in a Mg beam: Excitation dynamics and velocity distribution," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1279-1285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Godone, A.

C. Novera and A. Godone, "Wavelength and Isotopic shift measurements of the 3S (3s4s) - 3P (3s3p) MgI transitions," Z. Phys. D 17, 33-35 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Giusfredi, A. Godone, E. Bava, and C. Novero, "Metastable atoms in a Mg beam: Excitation dynamics and velocity distribution," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1279-1285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grünert, J.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hallstadius, L.

L. Hallstadius and J. E. Hansen, "Experimental Determination of Isotope Shifts in MgI," Z. Phys. A 285, 365-370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

L. Hallstadius and J. E. Hansen, "Experimental Determination of Isotope Shifts in MgI," Z. Phys. A 285, 365-370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Heavner, T.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heavner, T. P.

T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, E. A. Donley, J. H. Shirley, and T. E. Parker, "NIST-F1: recent improvements and accuracy evaluations," Metrologia 42, 411-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "Improved uncertainty budget for optical frequency measurements with microkelvin neutral atoms: Results for a high-stability 40Ca optical frequency standard," Appl. Phys. B 85, 31-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, C. W.

Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ido, T.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefferts, S.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jefferts, S. R.

T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, E. A. Donley, J. H. Shirley, and T. E. Parker, "NIST-F1: recent improvements and accuracy evaluations," Metrologia 42, 411-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jun Ye, S. M.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katori, H.

M. Takamoto and H. Katori, "Spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr in an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, M. S.

Laurent, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N. D.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

H. C. Chui, S. Y. Shaw, M. S. Ko, Y. W. Liu, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, W. Y. Cheng, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, "Iodine stabilization of a diode laser in the optical communication band," Opt. Lett. 30, 646-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Cheng, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, and C. C. Chou, "Molecular Iodine spectra and laser stabilization by frequency-doubled 1534nm diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3055-3058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lisdat, Ch.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. W.

Ludlow, A. D.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ludlow, D.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luiten, A.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mackechinie, C. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maksimovic, I.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marion, H.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazarova, T.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novera, C.

C. Novera and A. Godone, "Wavelength and Isotopic shift measurements of the 3S (3s4s) - 3P (3s3p) MgI transitions," Z. Phys. D 17, 33-35 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Novero, C.

G. Giusfredi, A. Godone, E. Bava, and C. Novero, "Metastable atoms in a Mg beam: Excitation dynamics and velocity distribution," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1279-1285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "Improved uncertainty budget for optical frequency measurements with microkelvin neutral atoms: Results for a high-stability 40Ca optical frequency standard," Appl. Phys. B 85, 31-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oates, Ch.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T. E.

T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, E. A. Donley, J. H. Shirley, and T. E. Parker, "NIST-F1: recent improvements and accuracy evaluations," Metrologia 42, 411-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pereira dos Santos, F.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poli, N.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pottie, P.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbusch, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Rovera, G. D.

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salomon, C.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, S. Y.

Shirley, J. H.

T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, E. A. Donley, J. H. Shirley, and T. E. Parker, "NIST-F1: recent improvements and accuracy evaluations," Metrologia 42, 411-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J. T.

H. C. Chui, S. Y. Shaw, M. S. Ko, Y. W. Liu, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, W. Y. Cheng, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, "Iodine stabilization of a diode laser in the optical communication band," Opt. Lett. 30, 646-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Cheng, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, and C. C. Chou, "Molecular Iodine spectra and laser stabilization by frequency-doubled 1534nm diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3055-3058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stalnaker, J. E.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stoehr, H.

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taichenache, A. V.

Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takamoto, M.

M. Takamoto and H. Katori, "Spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr in an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targat, R. L.

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tcherbakoff, O.

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, J. W.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobar, M.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vian, C.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilpers, G.

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "Improved uncertainty budget for optical frequency measurements with microkelvin neutral atoms: Results for a high-stability 40Ca optical frequency standard," Appl. Phys. B 85, 31-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yudin, V. I.

Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zelevinsky, T.

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "Improved uncertainty budget for optical frequency measurements with microkelvin neutral atoms: Results for a high-stability 40Ca optical frequency standard," Appl. Phys. B 85, 31-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Physique

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, Ch. Oates, and L. Hollberg, "The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST," C. R. Physique 5, 845-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechinie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: Versatile sources for the 1-1.2µm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Giusfredi, A. Godone, E. Bava, and C. Novero, "Metastable atoms in a Mg beam: Excitation dynamics and velocity distribution," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1279-1285 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

W. Y. Cheng, J. T. Shy, T. Lin, and C. C. Chou, "Molecular Iodine spectra and laser stabilization by frequency-doubled 1534nm diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3055-3058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, E. A. Donley, J. H. Shirley, and T. E. Parker, "NIST-F1: recent improvements and accuracy evaluations," Metrologia 42, 411-422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Opt. Phys.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grünert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, "Cold atom clocks and applications," J. Phys. B: Atomic, Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S449-S468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, "Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0 -3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb," Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, Ch. Lisdat, G. Wilpers, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, T. Nazarova, P. Pottie, U. Sterr, J. Helmcke, and Fritz Riehle, "Calcium optical frequency standard with ultracold atoms: Approaching 10-15 relative uncertainty," Phys. Rev. A 72, 062111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. L. Targat, X. Baillard, M. Fouche, A. Brusch, O. Tcherbakoff, G. D. Rovera, and P. Lemonde, "Accurate optical lattice clock with 87Sr atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Takamoto and H. Katori, "Spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition of 87Sr in an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 223001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "87Sr lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10-15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Barber, C. W. Hoyt, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenache, and V. I. Yudin, "Direct excitation of the forbidden clock transition in neutral 174Yb atoms confined to an optical lattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 083002 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, "Sr lattice clock at 1×10?16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock," Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. A

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[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D

C. Novera and A. Godone, "Wavelength and Isotopic shift measurements of the 3S (3s4s) - 3P (3s3p) MgI transitions," Z. Phys. D 17, 33-35 (1990).
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Other

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier, (Academic 1999).

M. Dekker, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifier, (2nd Edition 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of 517 nm laser system: T, telescope; DM, dichromatic mirror; IF, interference filter; M, mirror; λ/2, half waveplates; BS, beam splitter; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PMT, photomultiplier tube; PD, photodiode; BB, beam block; DA, differential amplifier; PZT, piezoelectric actuator. A two stage YDFA system is used for 1034 nm amplification, and a PPLN waveguide produces second harmonic generation (SHG) at 517 nm. The PPLN temperature is about 35 °C, and 40 mW of 517 nm SHG output is obtained with 1.4 W of incident 1034 nm laser. An external cavity is used to stabilize the two-stage YDFA system, and spectroscopy is performed on a metastable magnesium beam.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The blue points show 1034 nm gain of one-stage YDFA as a function of pump laser power. The red circles show 1034 nm output of two-stage YDFA, where 1.5 W output obtained. The green lines are added as a guide for the eye.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The blue points show 517nm SHG laser generation, where 40 mW of 517 nm laser obtained. The red circles show frequency doubling efficiency of the PPLN waveguide. The green lines are added as a guide for the eye.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption spectroscopy of the metastable Mg (3s4s)3S1-(3s3p)3P1 transitions at 517.4 nm. The blue line is the fluorescence signal taken by photo multiplier tube, and the red line is the fitting curve. The isotope shift of 24Mg and 26Mg, and the hyperfine of 25Mg can be observed. The value of 24Mg – 26Mg isotope shift of 3S13P1 transition can be estimated as 390.1 ± 1.4 MHz.

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