Abstract

For the first time, Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structures have been inscribed in single-core passive germanate and three-core passive and active tellurite glass fibers using 800nm femtosecond (fs) laser and phase mask technique. With fs peak power intensity in the order of 1011W/cm2, the FBG spectra with 2nd and 3rd order resonances at 1540 and 1033nm in the germanate glass fiber and 2nd order resonances at ~1694 and ~1677nm with strengths up to 14dB in all three cores in the tellurite fiber were observed. Thermal responsivities of the FBGs made in these mid-IR glass fibers were characterized, showing average temperature responsivity ~20pm/°C. Strain responsivities of the FBGs in germanate glass fiber were measured to be 1.219pm/με.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
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  3. J. Mulrooney, J. Clifford, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, "Detection of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre based sensor," Sens. Actuators A: Physical. 136, 104-110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (2)

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, "Raw materials purification for the development of high performance infrared transmitting germanate glass fibre," Glass Technology: The European J. Glass Science Tech.,Part Ain press (2008)

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, 877-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mulrooney, J. Clifford, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, "Detection of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre based sensor," Sens. Actuators A: Physical. 136, 104-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. Céreyon, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, L. Maksimov, O. Yanush, and V. N. Bogdanov, "xPbO-(1-x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification," Opt. Mater. 28, 1301-1304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Rouard’s method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems," Opt. Express 14, 11687-11693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Uemura, K. Nishida, M. Sakakida, K. Ichinose, S. Shimoda, and M. Shichiri, "Non-invasive blood glucose measurement by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis through the mucous membrane of the lip: application of a chalcogenide optical fiber system," Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. 9, 137-153 (1999).

1998 (1)

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. EL-Adawy and R. EL-Mallawany, "Elastic modulus of tellurite glasses," J. Mater. Sci. Lett.  15, 2065-2067 (1996).

1995 (1)

A. I. Rabukhin, "Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of germanate glasses containing lead and bismuth oxides," Glass and Ceramics. 37, 87-90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Barton, J. S.

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Silva-López, W. N. MacPherson, C. Li, A. J. Moore, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Transverse load and orientation measurement with multicore fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Opt. 44, 6890-6897 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 387-389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baxter, G. W.

Bayya, S. S.

Bennion, I.

Bindra, K.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bindra, K. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, V. N.

A. Céreyon, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, L. Maksimov, O. Yanush, and V. N. Bogdanov, "xPbO-(1-x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification," Opt. Mater. 28, 1301-1304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. J.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
[CrossRef]

Céreyon, A.

A. Céreyon, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, L. Maksimov, O. Yanush, and V. N. Bogdanov, "xPbO-(1-x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification," Opt. Mater. 28, 1301-1304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Champagnon, B.

A. Céreyon, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, L. Maksimov, O. Yanush, and V. N. Bogdanov, "xPbO-(1-x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification," Opt. Mater. 28, 1301-1304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, G. D.

Clifford, J.

J. Mulrooney, J. Clifford, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, "Detection of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre based sensor," Sens. Actuators A: Physical. 136, 104-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. F.

Dai, X.

Ding, H.

Dragomir, N. M.

Farrell, P. M.

Fitzpatrick, C.

J. Mulrooney, J. Clifford, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, "Detection of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre based sensor," Sens. Actuators A: Physical. 136, 104-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flockhart, G. M. H.

Floreani, F.

X. Shu, K. Sugden, D. Zhao, F. Floreani, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Complex growth behaviour of hybrid-type fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 274-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gayraud, N.

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glas, P.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, 877-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Rouard’s method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask", Opt. Express. 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, "Bragg gratings written in all-SiO2 and Ge-doped core fibers with 800-nm femtosecond radiation and a phase mask," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94-100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, H. Ding, and X. Dai, "Multiple-beam interference patterns in optical fiber generated with ultrafast pulses and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1458-1460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, "Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichinose, K.

T. Uemura, K. Nishida, M. Sakakida, K. Ichinose, S. Shimoda, and M. Shichiri, "Non-invasive blood glucose measurement by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis through the mucous membrane of the lip: application of a chalcogenide optical fiber system," Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. 9, 137-153 (1999).

Jha, A.

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, "Raw materials purification for the development of high performance infrared transmitting germanate glass fibre," Glass Technology: The European J. Glass Science Tech.,Part Ain press (2008)

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, "Raw materials purification for the development of high performance infrared transmitting germanate glass fibre," Glass Technology: The European J. Glass Science Tech.,Part Ain press (2008)

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, J. D. C.

Kar, A. K.

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, E.

J. Mulrooney, J. Clifford, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, "Detection of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre based sensor," Sens. Actuators A: Physical. 136, 104-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Li, H.

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
[CrossRef]

Lousteau, J.

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, "Raw materials purification for the development of high performance infrared transmitting germanate glass fibre," Glass Technology: The European J. Glass Science Tech.,Part Ain press (2008)

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

MacPherson, W. N.

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Silva-López, W. N. MacPherson, C. Li, A. J. Moore, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, D. Zhao, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Transverse load and orientation measurement with multicore fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Opt. 44, 6890-6897 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 387-389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maksimov, L.

A. Céreyon, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, L. Maksimov, O. Yanush, and V. N. Bogdanov, "xPbO-(1-x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification," Opt. Mater. 28, 1301-1304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, V.

A. Céreyon, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, L. Maksimov, O. Yanush, and V. N. Bogdanov, "xPbO-(1-x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification," Opt. Mater. 28, 1301-1304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Mihailov, S. J.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, 877-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Rouard’s method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask", Opt. Express. 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, "Bragg gratings written in all-SiO2 and Ge-doped core fibers with 800-nm femtosecond radiation and a phase mask," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94-100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, H. Ding, and X. Dai, "Multiple-beam interference patterns in optical fiber generated with ultrafast pulses and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1458-1460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, "Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, A. J.

Mori, A.

Mulrooney, J.

J. Mulrooney, J. Clifford, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, "Detection of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre based sensor," Sens. Actuators A: Physical. 136, 104-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Naumann, M.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, K.

T. Uemura, K. Nishida, M. Sakakida, K. Ichinose, S. Shimoda, and M. Shichiri, "Non-invasive blood glucose measurement by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis through the mucous membrane of the lip: application of a chalcogenide optical fiber system," Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. 9, 137-153 (1999).

Pertsch, Th.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, N. D.

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabukhin, A. I.

A. I. Rabukhin, "Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of germanate glasses containing lead and bismuth oxides," Glass and Ceramics. 37, 87-90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

Rollinson, C.

Sakakida, M.

T. Uemura, K. Nishida, M. Sakakida, K. Ichinose, S. Shimoda, and M. Shichiri, "Non-invasive blood glucose measurement by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis through the mucous membrane of the lip: application of a chalcogenide optical fiber system," Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. 9, 137-153 (1999).

Sanghera, J. S.

Schirmacher, A.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shichiri, M.

T. Uemura, K. Nishida, M. Sakakida, K. Ichinose, S. Shimoda, and M. Shichiri, "Non-invasive blood glucose measurement by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis through the mucous membrane of the lip: application of a chalcogenide optical fiber system," Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. 9, 137-153 (1999).

Shikano, K.

Shimizu, M.

Shimoda, S.

T. Uemura, K. Nishida, M. Sakakida, K. Ichinose, S. Shimoda, and M. Shichiri, "Non-invasive blood glucose measurement by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis through the mucous membrane of the lip: application of a chalcogenide optical fiber system," Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. 9, 137-153 (1999).

Shu, X.

X. Shu, K. Sugden, D. Zhao, F. Floreani, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Complex growth behaviour of hybrid-type fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 274-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silva-López, M.

Smelser, C. W.

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, 877-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Rouard’s method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask", Opt. Express. 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, "Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, "Bragg gratings written in all-SiO2 and Ge-doped core fibers with 800-nm femtosecond radiation and a phase mask," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94-100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, H. Ding, and X. Dai, "Multiple-beam interference patterns in optical fiber generated with ultrafast pulses and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1458-1460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, A. J.

Sugden, K.

X. Shu, K. Sugden, D. Zhao, F. Floreani, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Complex growth behaviour of hybrid-type fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 274-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uemura, T.

T. Uemura, K. Nishida, M. Sakakida, K. Ichinose, S. Shimoda, and M. Shichiri, "Non-invasive blood glucose measurement by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis through the mucous membrane of the lip: application of a chalcogenide optical fiber system," Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. 9, 137-153 (1999).

Unruh, J.

Wade, S. A.

Walker, R. B.

Wherrett, B. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
[CrossRef]

Yanush, O.

A. Céreyon, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, L. Maksimov, O. Yanush, and V. N. Bogdanov, "xPbO-(1-x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification," Opt. Mater. 28, 1301-1304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhao, D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observaton of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941(2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

X. Shu, K. Sugden, D. Zhao, F. Floreani, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Complex growth behaviour of hybrid-type fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 274-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. (1)

T. Uemura, K. Nishida, M. Sakakida, K. Ichinose, S. Shimoda, and M. Shichiri, "Non-invasive blood glucose measurement by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis through the mucous membrane of the lip: application of a chalcogenide optical fiber system," Frontiers Med. Biol. Eng. 9, 137-153 (1999).

Glass and Ceramics. (1)

A. I. Rabukhin, "Concentration dependences of elastooptic coefficients of germanate glasses containing lead and bismuth oxides," Glass and Ceramics. 37, 87-90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. Shen, A. Jha, X. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Glass Science Tech., (1)

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, "Raw materials purification for the development of high performance infrared transmitting germanate glass fibre," Glass Technology: The European J. Glass Science Tech.,Part Ain press (2008)

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Mater. Sci. Lett. (1)

A. EL-Adawy and R. EL-Mallawany, "Elastic modulus of tellurite glasses," J. Mater. Sci. Lett.  15, 2065-2067 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (2)

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Rouard’s method modeling of type I-IR fiber Bragg gratings made using an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2011-2017 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 25, 877-883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Express. (2)

H. T. Bookey, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, N. Gayraud, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, H. Li, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and A. K. Kar, "Multiple rare earth emissions in a multicore tellurite fiber with a single pump wavelength," Opt. Express. 15, 17554-17561 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask", Opt. Express. 13, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Céreyon, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, L. Maksimov, O. Yanush, and V. N. Bogdanov, "xPbO-(1-x)GeO2 glasses as potential materials for Raman amplification," Opt. Mater. 28, 1301-1304 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt.Express. (1)

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germinate optical fibers," Opt.Express. 15, 8857-8863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A: Physical. (1)

J. Mulrooney, J. Clifford, C. Fitzpatrick, and E. Lewis, "Detection of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre based sensor," Sens. Actuators A: Physical. 136, 104-110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, "Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 504-509, (2007).

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Optical Electronics. (Cambridge University Press), Chap.16, 1989, p503

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscopy images of the cross-sections of (a) GPNG single-core fiber, (b) TZN passive and (c) active three-core fibers. Note: the D-shape-like end images are attributed to cleaving defects, as the fibres are not standard and fragile to achieve nice-finish cleaving.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of FBG inscription system using fs laser and phase mask with a TZN MCF mounted. The x axis in (b) is parallel to the phase mask and perpendicular to the grooves; and the y axis is normal to the phase mask.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microscopy images of grating structure from (a) the top view and (b) side view of the TZN passive fiber. In both (a) and (b), the periods of the structures are measured as 1.687 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Near-field patterns of a three-core TZN fiber when ~1680 nm light was launched into (a) outer cladding, (b) inner cladding, and (c) – (e) its three individual cores.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) 2nd and (b) 3rd order FBG resonances of the grating made in GPNG fiber.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

2nd order FBG spectra of the passive three-core TZN fiber: (a) core A, (b) core B and (c) core C.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

2nd order FBG transmission spectra in (a) – (c) the core A–C of the active TZN MCF.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The wavelength shift of (a) the 2nd and 3rd order resonances of the GPNG fiber at ~1540 and 1033 nm and (b) the 2nd order resonances of the core A–C of the active three-core TZN fiber at ~1677 nm against temperature change.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The strain sensitivity of the 2nd order resonances of (a) the GPNG fiber at ~1540 nm and (b) the optical phase change with strain per unit length of GPNG fiber at ~1540 nm from F-P interferometer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Strain properties of GPNG and TZN fiber from optical measurement and theoretical calculation

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ Δ T = λ B ( α + β n eff )
Δ λ B ε = λ B · { 1 1 2 · n 2 [ ( 1 μ ) p 12 μ p 11 ] }
Δ ϕ εL = Δ ϕ Δ L = 2 n π λ { 1 1 2 · n 2 [ ( 1 μ ) p 12 μ p 11 ] }
1 β · Δ ϕ Δ L = 1 λ B · Δ λ B ε = 1 1 2 · n 2 [ ( 1 μ ) p 12 μ p 11 ]

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