Abstract

High-resolution tomographic imaging is demonstrated using a reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. To realize a practical system for general use, a robust all-fiber laser was used as the pump light source. Broadband terahertz waves were generated with the combination of optical pulses compressed to 17 fs using optical fibers and a DAST crystal. Using deconvolution signal processing, the wideband spectrum of the generated terahertz waves provided high-axial resolution leading to successful imaging of a multilayered structure containing a 2-μm-thin GaAs layer. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of terahertz tomographic imaging of such a thin layer.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, " Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express 11, 2549-2554 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-20-2549.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, M. Oikawa, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Interference terahertz label-free imaging for protein detection on a membrane," Opt. Express 16, 22083-22089 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-26-22083.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunshe, L. Boivin, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, "Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thickness using terahertz pulsed imaging," J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, and T Araki, "Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in a paint film," Appl. Opt. 44, 6849-6856 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Matsui, M. D. Pelusi, and A. Suzuki, "Generation of 20-fs pulses from a gain-switched laser diode by a four-stage soliton compression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1217-1219 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, "Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 85-C, 141-149 (2002).
  13. T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Generation of 14 fs ultrashort pulse in all fiber scheme by use of highly nonlinear hybrid fiber," in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T. Kobayashi, et al., eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2005), pp. 31.
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Takayanagi, S. Kanamori, K. Suizu, M. Yamashita, T. Ouchi, S. Kasai, H. Ohtake, H. Uchida, N. Nishizawa, and K. Kawase, "Generation and detection of broadband coherent terahertz radiation using 17-fs ultrashort pulse fiber laser," Opt. Express 16, 12859-12865 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-17-12859.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, "Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thickness using terahertz pulsed imaging," J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, and T Araki, "Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in a paint film," Appl. Opt. 44, 6849-6856 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, "Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 85-C, 141-149 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, "Enhanced depth resolution in terahertz imaging using phase-shift interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835-837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Matsui, M. D. Pelusi, and A. Suzuki, "Generation of 20-fs pulses from a gain-switched laser diode by a four-stage soliton compression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1217-1219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araki, T

Boivin, L.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, "Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thickness using terahertz pulsed imaging," J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorney, T. D.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, "Enhanced depth resolution in terahertz imaging using phase-shift interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835-837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, "Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thickness using terahertz pulsed imaging," J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, S.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosako, I.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunshe, S.

Igarashi, K.

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, "Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 85-C, 141-149 (2002).

Inoue, H.

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. L.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, "Enhanced depth resolution in terahertz imaging using phase-shift interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835-837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, S.

Kasai, S.

Kawase, K.

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kishi, M.

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, "Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 85-C, 141-149 (2002).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, Y.

Y. Matsui, M. D. Pelusi, and A. Suzuki, "Generation of 20-fs pulses from a gain-switched laser diode by a four-stage soliton compression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1217-1219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, "Enhanced depth resolution in terahertz imaging using phase-shift interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835-837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunshe, L. Boivin, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

Nuss, M. G.

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunshe, L. Boivin, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Ohtake, H.

Oikawa, M.

Otani, C.

Ouchi, T.

Pelusi, M. D.

Y. Matsui, M. D. Pelusi, and A. Suzuki, "Generation of 20-fs pulses from a gain-switched laser diode by a four-stage soliton compression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1217-1219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, S.

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, "Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 85-C, 141-149 (2002).

Sawanaka, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suizu, K.

Suzuki, A.

Y. Matsui, M. D. Pelusi, and A. Suzuki, "Generation of 20-fs pulses from a gain-switched laser diode by a four-stage soliton compression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1217-1219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, "Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thickness using terahertz pulsed imaging," J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takayanagi, J.

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, "Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 85-C, 141-149 (2002).

Uchida, H.

Watanabe, Y.

Yamashita, M.

Yasuda, T.

Yasui, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, "Enhanced depth resolution in terahertz imaging using phase-shift interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 835-837 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E (1)

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, "Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 85-C, 141-149 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. G. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Matsui, M. D. Pelusi, and A. Suzuki, "Generation of 20-fs pulses from a gain-switched laser diode by a four-stage soliton compression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1217-1219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, "Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thickness using terahertz pulsed imaging," J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 177-183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Generation of 14 fs ultrashort pulse in all fiber scheme by use of highly nonlinear hybrid fiber," in Ultrafast Phenomena XIV, T. Kobayashi, et al., eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2005), pp. 31.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the fiber-laser, high-resolution time-of-flight terahertz tomography system. The inset shows the temporal waveform of the 17-fs fiber laser: BS: beam splitter; PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate; DM: dichroic mirror; PCA: photoconductive antenna; Ge: germanium plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal waveform (a) as detected and (b) after signal processing. The insets show the corresponding Fourier transforms. The gray curve represents a Gaussian-shaped waveform.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evaluation of axial resolution using Teflon films. (a) Typical measured temporal waveform, (b) waveform after deconvolution process, and (c) measured thickness of Teflon films as a function of actual thickness. The actual thickness was measured using a micrometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D terahertz-tomography image of three sheets of paper.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Terahertz tomography of a semiconductor sample: (a) schematic diagram of the sample, (b) temporal waveform after deconvolution process obtained to measure the thickness of GaAs, (c) measured tomography image, and (d) close-up around the GaAs layer.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y ( t ) = h ( τ ) x ( t τ ) d τ = h ( t ) * x ( t )
Y ( ω ) = H ( ω ) X ( ω )
h ( t ) = 1 ( Y ( ω ) 1 X ( ω ) )
W ( ω ) = X ¯ ( ω ) | X ( ω ) | 2 + 1 / a ,
h ( t ) = 1 { Y ( ω ) W ( ω ) }
exp { t 2 2 ( T FWHM / 2 2 ln 2 ) 2 } ,
h ( t ) = 1 { Y ( ω ) W ( ω ) [ exp { t 2 2 ( T FWHM / 2 2 ln 2 ) 2 } ] }

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