Abstract

A simple analog locking circuit was shown to stabilize the beat signal between a 2.408 THz quantum cascade laser and a CH2DOH THz CO2 optically pumped molecular laser to 3–4 kHz (FWHM). This is approximately a tenth of the observed long-term (t ~ sec) linewidth of the optically pumped laser showing that the feedback loop corrects for much of the mechanical and acoustic-induced frequency jitter of the gas laser. The achieved stability should be sufficient to enable the use of THz quantum cascade lasers as transmitters in short-range coherent transceivers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K," Opt. Express 16, 3242 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully Polarimetric W-Band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. L. Betz, R.T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1837-1839 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M.  Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, J. Li, W. D. Goodhue, K. J.  Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz sideband-tuned quantum cascade laser radiation," Opt. Express 16, 5171-5180 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E.  Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 46, 5051-5055 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Rau, R. Schieder, and B. Vowinkel, "Characterization and measurement of radiometer stability," Eur. Micro. Conf. 14th, 248 - 253 (1984).

2009

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M.  Fischer, and J. Faist, "Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver," Opt. Express 17, 1159-1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully Polarimetric W-Band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240, (2001).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. W. Allan, "Statistics of atomic frequency standards," Proc. IEEE 54, 221-230 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Rutman, "Characterization of phase and frequency instabilities in precision frequency sources: fifteen years of progress," Proc. IEEE 66, 1048-1075 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, "Statistics of atomic frequency standards," Proc. IEEE 54, 221-230 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baryshev, A.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, A. L.

Bielsa, F.

Boreiko, R.T.

Capasso, F.

Carter, S.

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully Polarimetric W-Band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coulombe, M. J.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danylov, A. A.

Davies, A. G.

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K," Opt. Express 16, 3242 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhillon, S. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, J. C.

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully Polarimetric W-Band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Douillet, A.

Faist, J.

Fan, J. A.

Fischer, M.

Gao, J. R.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

Giles, R. H.

Giles, R. H.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, W. D.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, J. Li, W. D. Goodhue, K. J.  Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz sideband-tuned quantum cascade laser radiation," Opt. Express 16, 5171-5180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goyette, T. M.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, J. Li, W. D. Goodhue, K. J.  Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz sideband-tuned quantum cascade laser radiation," Opt. Express 16, 5171-5180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E.  Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 46, 5051-5055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully Polarimetric W-Band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Graf, U. U.

Hilico, L.

Hormoz, S.

Hovenier, J. N.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R.T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1837-1839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaalynas, I.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karr, J.-P.

Khanna, S. P.

Klaassen, T. O.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R.T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1837-1839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lachab, M.

Li, J.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, J. Li, W. D. Goodhue, K. J.  Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz sideband-tuned quantum cascade laser radiation," Opt. Express 16, 5171-5180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, K. J.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E.  Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 46, 5051-5055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, K. J.

Linfield, E. H.

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K," Opt. Express 16, 3242 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neal, W. R.

Nixon, W. E.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, J. Li, W. D. Goodhue, K. J.  Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz sideband-tuned quantum cascade laser radiation," Opt. Express 16, 5171-5180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully Polarimetric W-Band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nixon, W. E.

Philipp, M.

Rabanus, D.

Reno, J. L.

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E.  Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 46, 5051-5055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R.T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1837-1839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricken, O.

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutman, J.

J. Rutman, "Characterization of phase and frequency instabilities in precision frequency sources: fifteen years of progress," Proc. IEEE 66, 1048-1075 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stutzki, J.

Terazzi, R.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valenzuela, T.

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vowinkel, B.

Waldman, J.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, J. Li, W. D. Goodhue, K. J.  Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz sideband-tuned quantum cascade laser radiation," Opt. Express 16, 5171-5180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E.  Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 46, 5051-5055 (2007).
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T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, W. E. Nixon, and S. Carter, "Fully Polarimetric W-Band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 4382, 229-240, (2001).
[CrossRef]

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A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
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A. L. Betz, R.T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1837-1839 (2005).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillon, and C. Sirtori, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kaalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S.  Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H.  Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, "Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems," Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C, (2009).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Circuit configuration used in frequency locking the TQCL to the OPL. The modulated microwave source and bandpass filter provided an error signal that stabilized the intermediate frequency (IF), (νQCL–νOPL), and locked the quantum cascade laser to the OPL reference source.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Bandpass filter transmission spectrum with 610 kHz FWHM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The electronic feedback loop.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency spectra of (νQCLOPL) (RBW stands for a resolution bandwidth): (a) and (b) under locked conditions with 60 s scan time (4 kHz FWHM), (c) 5 sec scan with free-running QCL (200 kHz FWHM).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Frequency spectrum (1 kHz FWHM) under locked condition with 50 ms scan time (the spectrum was averaged over 100 scans).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Beat frequency fluctuation recorded (2 sec/point) during: (a) a 12-min time interval of the free-running TQCL, (Inset: Allan variance plot of the unlocked laser discussed in Sect.4), (b) a 45-min time interval of the locked TQCL.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Allan variance σ2 (red line) plot and its fit curve (blue line) for the locked TQCL, (b) Log σ2 vs Log τ. Region I (slope -1) is dominated by white noise, region II (slope 0) is dominated by flicker noise, and region III (fractional slope of 1.8) is dominated by a noise type positioned in power law model between random-walk (slope 1) and flicker-walk (slope 2) noises.

Equations (5)

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σ 2 ( 2 , τ ) = 1 2 ( m 1 ) ν 0 2 i = 1 m 1 ( ν ̄ i + 1 ν ̄ i ) 2 ,
σ 2 ( 2 , τ ) = a FW τ 2 + a RW τ 1.8 + a F + a W / τ .
a FW = 5 × 10 21 , a RW = 2.49 × 10 20 , a F = 4.2 × 10 18 , a W = 9.97 × 10 16 .
σ 2 ( 2 , τ ) = b FW τ 2
b FW = 1.228 × 10 11 .

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