Abstract

This paper reports a simple approach for the design of blue-excitation-light passing and phosphor-yellow-emission-light reflecting dielectric multilayers to recycle the backward emission of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) yellow phosphors on top of a blue InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) cup. The insertion of modified quarter-wave films of alternate high- and low-refractive index dielectric films (TiO2/SiO2) into the interface between a YAG:Ce phosphor layer and glass substrate resulted in 1.64 and 1.95 fold increase in efficiency and luminous efficacy of the forward white emission compared with that of a conventional phosphor on top of a blue LED cup with a lower correlated color temperature (< 4000K).

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Nanito, T. Nankajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 64, 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a Near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L838–L839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Nakamura, M. Senob, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1966

Allen, C.

C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumeister, P. W.

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

Do, Y. R.

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Hirosaki, N.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Nanito, T. Nankajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Höppe, H. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huh, Y. D.

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senob, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Izuno, K.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juestel, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kameshima, M.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Schekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Schekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Schekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3, 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senob, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murazaki, Y.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senob, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naitou, T.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senob, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nanito, A.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Nanito, T. Nankajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nankajima, T.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Nanito, T. Nankajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a Near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L838–L839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a Near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L838–L839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schekin, O. B.

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 64, 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 64, 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 64, 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnick, W.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Senob, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senob, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. H.

Y. D. Huh, J. H. Shim, Y. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Optical properties of three-band white light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(2), H57–H60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, F.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, N.

Y. Sato, N. Takahashi, and S. Sato, “Full-color fluorescent display devices using a Near-UV light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L838–L839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, H.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the phosphor-on-cup white LED device structure with the embedded blue light passing through and yellow light reflecting from the dielectric multilayer coated glass substrate and PL measurement system. The enlarged side view shows the basic structure of the SWPEF stacks and the mechanism for the enhancement of forward emission from the YAG:Ce yellow phosphor layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured refractive indices (n) and extinction coefficients (k) of the as-grown (a) SiO2 and (b) TiO2 films as a function of the wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated and measured transmittance spectra of a SWPEF stack [0.5L(H)0.5L]9 on a glass substrate. The inset shows a side-view scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the ninth periods of [0.5SiO2(TiO2)0.5SiO2] films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The blue-conversion-white spectra of a conventional and YAG:Ce-coated SWPEF-assisted glass covered LED cup corresponding to a sedimented phosphor layer of 4mg/cm2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The relative intensities and (b) the enhancement ratios of the extraction efficiency and luminous efficacy of transmitted blue and yellow light for a conventional and SWPEF-inserted phosphor-on-cup white LED as a function of the phosphor density.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The correlated color temperature and (b) color rendering indices of transmitted blue and yellow light for a conventional and a SWPEF-inserted phosphor-on-cup white LED as a function of the phosphor density.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular dependence of CCT of a conventional and a SWPEF-inserted phosphor-on-cup white LED corresponding to a sedimented phosphor layer of 4mg/cm2. The inset shows the measured luminous efficacy profiles of a conventional (blue solid line) and a SWPEF-inserted phosphor-on-cup white LED (red solid line).

Equations (1)

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G [ 0. 5L ( H ) 0. 5L ] m A

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