Abstract

We report on what we believe to be the first Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser. A hot-band CO2 transition around 4.3 μm wavelength has been used to test the potential of the technique for high-resolution spectroscopy and wide-bandwidth quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, "Doppler-free laser polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170-1173 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. E. Teets, R. Feinberg, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Simplification of spectra by polarization labeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 683-686 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822-834 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Stert, R. Fischer, E. Meisel, and H.-H. Ritze, "High-resolution polarization spectroscopy in the 10 μm region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1498-1499 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Stert and R. Fischer, "Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light," Appl. Phys. 17, 151-154 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Yoshikawa, T. Umeki, T. Mukae, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Frequency stabilization of a laser diode with use of light-induced birefringence in an atomic vapor," Appl. Opt. 42, 6645-6649 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed., (Springer, 3rd edition, 2002).
  8. R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, T. N. Carlson, and T. W. Hansch, "Laser polarization spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instruments Engineering, A. Zewail, ed., vol. 113, p. 80 (1977).
  9. T. A. Reichardt and R. P. Lucht, "Theoretical calculation of line shapes and saturation effects in polarization spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5830-5843 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Raab, G. Honing,W. Demtroder, and C. R. Vidal, "High resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4370-4386 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, "High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm," Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 4147 (2002).
  12. Z. S. Li, Z. W. Sun, B. Li, M. Alden, and M. Forsth, "Spatially resolved trace detection of HCl in flames with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 33, 1836-1838 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Kiermeier, K. Dietrich, E. Riedle, and H. J. Neusser, "Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Photochemical hole burning of gas phase s-tetrazine," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6983-6990 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and A. McIlroy, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of carbon dioxide," Appl. Phys. B 75, 875-882 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. T. Alwahabi, Z. S. Li, J. Zetterberg, and M. Alden, "Infrared polarization spectroscopy of CO2 at atmospheric pressure," Opt. Commun. 233, 373-381 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 135-138 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Detection of nascent CO2 and H2O in atmospheric pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 243-248 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. B. Kim, H. J. Kong, and S. S. Lee, "Dye laser frequency locking to the hyperfine structure (3S1/2,F = 2?3P1/2,F = 2) of sodium D1 line by using polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 417-419 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. P. T. Lancaster, R. S. Conroy, M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, "A polarization spectrometer locked diode laser for trapping cold atoms," Opt. Commun. 170, 79-84 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 μm," Opt. Lett. 32, 988-990 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kuntz, "A new implementation of the Humlicek algorithm for the calculation of the Voigt profile function," JQRST 57, 819-824 (1997).
  23. The HITRAN database is available at http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/HITRAN.
  24. V. S. Letokhov, Saturation spectroscopy, High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 1976).
  25. D. Weidmann, L. Joly, V. Parpillon, and D. Courtois, Y. Bonetti, T. Aellen, M. Beck, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, "Free-running 9.1-μm distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser linewidth measurement by heterodyning with a C18O2 laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 704-706 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Castrillo, E. De Tommasi, L. Gianfrani, L. Sirigu and J. Faist, "Doppler-free saturated-absorption spectroscopy of CO2 at 4.3 μm by means of a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 3040-3042 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, Z. W. Sun, B. Li, M. Alden, and M. Forsth, "Spatially resolved trace detection of HCl in flames with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 33, 1836-1838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Detection of nascent CO2 and H2O in atmospheric pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 243-248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Z. T. Alwahabi, Z. S. Li, J. Zetterberg, and M. Alden, "Infrared polarization spectroscopy of CO2 at atmospheric pressure," Opt. Commun. 233, 373-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 135-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and A. McIlroy, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of carbon dioxide," Appl. Phys. B 75, 875-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, "High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm," Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 4147 (2002).

1999 (1)

G. P. T. Lancaster, R. S. Conroy, M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, "A polarization spectrometer locked diode laser for trapping cold atoms," Opt. Commun. 170, 79-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. A. Reichardt and R. P. Lucht, "Theoretical calculation of line shapes and saturation effects in polarization spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5830-5843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Kuntz, "A new implementation of the Humlicek algorithm for the calculation of the Voigt profile function," JQRST 57, 819-824 (1997).

1988 (1)

J. B. Kim, H. J. Kong, and S. S. Lee, "Dye laser frequency locking to the hyperfine structure (3S1/2,F = 2?3P1/2,F = 2) of sodium D1 line by using polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 417-419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Kiermeier, K. Dietrich, E. Riedle, and H. J. Neusser, "Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Photochemical hole burning of gas phase s-tetrazine," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6983-6990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. Raab, G. Honing,W. Demtroder, and C. R. Vidal, "High resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4370-4386 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822-834 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

V. Stert and R. Fischer, "Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light," Appl. Phys. 17, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

V. Stert, R. Fischer, E. Meisel, and H.-H. Ritze, "High-resolution polarization spectroscopy in the 10 μm region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1498-1499 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, "Doppler-free laser polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170-1173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Teets, R. Feinberg, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Simplification of spectra by polarization labeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 683-686 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

Alden, M.

Z. S. Li, Z. W. Sun, B. Li, M. Alden, and M. Forsth, "Spatially resolved trace detection of HCl in flames with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 33, 1836-1838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Detection of nascent CO2 and H2O in atmospheric pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 243-248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 135-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, Z. S. Li, J. Zetterberg, and M. Alden, "Infrared polarization spectroscopy of CO2 at atmospheric pressure," Opt. Commun. 233, 373-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, "High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm," Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 4147 (2002).

Alwahabi, Z. T.

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Detection of nascent CO2 and H2O in atmospheric pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 243-248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 135-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, Z. S. Li, J. Zetterberg, and M. Alden, "Infrared polarization spectroscopy of CO2 at atmospheric pressure," Opt. Commun. 233, 373-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, "High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm," Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 4147 (2002).

Arlt, J.

G. P. T. Lancaster, R. S. Conroy, M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, "A polarization spectrometer locked diode laser for trapping cold atoms," Opt. Commun. 170, 79-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartalini, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 μm," Opt. Lett. 32, 988-990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

Bonetti, Y.

Borri, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 μm," Opt. Lett. 32, 988-990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancio, P.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 μm," Opt. Lett. 32, 988-990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, N. W.

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822-834 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Castrillo, A.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Castrillo, E. De Tommasi, L. Gianfrani, L. Sirigu and J. Faist, "Doppler-free saturated-absorption spectroscopy of CO2 at 4.3 μm by means of a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 3040-3042 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clifford, M. A.

G. P. T. Lancaster, R. S. Conroy, M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, "A polarization spectrometer locked diode laser for trapping cold atoms," Opt. Commun. 170, 79-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R. S.

G. P. T. Lancaster, R. S. Conroy, M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, "A polarization spectrometer locked diode laser for trapping cold atoms," Opt. Commun. 170, 79-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, D.

De Tommasi, E.

Demtroder, W.

M. Raab, G. Honing,W. Demtroder, and C. R. Vidal, "High resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4370-4386 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

G. P. T. Lancaster, R. S. Conroy, M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, "A polarization spectrometer locked diode laser for trapping cold atoms," Opt. Commun. 170, 79-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, K.

A. Kiermeier, K. Dietrich, E. Riedle, and H. J. Neusser, "Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Photochemical hole burning of gas phase s-tetrazine," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6983-6990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Feinberg, R.

R. E. Teets, R. Feinberg, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Simplification of spectra by polarization labeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 683-686 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R.

V. Stert and R. Fischer, "Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light," Appl. Phys. 17, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. Stert, R. Fischer, E. Meisel, and H.-H. Ritze, "High-resolution polarization spectroscopy in the 10 μm region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1498-1499 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Forsth, M.

Galli, I.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 μm," Opt. Lett. 32, 988-990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gianfrani, L.

Giusfredi, G.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 μm," Opt. Lett. 32, 988-990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

R. E. Teets, R. Feinberg, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Simplification of spectra by polarization labeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 683-686 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, "Doppler-free laser polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170-1173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

Honing, G.

M. Raab, G. Honing,W. Demtroder, and C. R. Vidal, "High resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4370-4386 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Joly, L.

Jones, K. M.

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822-834 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kiermeier, A.

A. Kiermeier, K. Dietrich, E. Riedle, and H. J. Neusser, "Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Photochemical hole burning of gas phase s-tetrazine," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6983-6990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, H. J. Kong, and S. S. Lee, "Dye laser frequency locking to the hyperfine structure (3S1/2,F = 2?3P1/2,F = 2) of sodium D1 line by using polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 417-419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H. J.

J. B. Kim, H. J. Kong, and S. S. Lee, "Dye laser frequency locking to the hyperfine structure (3S1/2,F = 2?3P1/2,F = 2) of sodium D1 line by using polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 417-419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, T.

Kuntz, M.

M. Kuntz, "A new implementation of the Humlicek algorithm for the calculation of the Voigt profile function," JQRST 57, 819-824 (1997).

Lancaster, G. P. T.

G. P. T. Lancaster, R. S. Conroy, M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, "A polarization spectrometer locked diode laser for trapping cold atoms," Opt. Commun. 170, 79-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

J. B. Kim, H. J. Kong, and S. S. Lee, "Dye laser frequency locking to the hyperfine structure (3S1/2,F = 2?3P1/2,F = 2) of sodium D1 line by using polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 417-419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, T.

Li, B.

Li, Z. S.

Z. S. Li, Z. W. Sun, B. Li, M. Alden, and M. Forsth, "Spatially resolved trace detection of HCl in flames with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 33, 1836-1838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Detection of nascent CO2 and H2O in atmospheric pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 243-248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 135-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, Z. S. Li, J. Zetterberg, and M. Alden, "Infrared polarization spectroscopy of CO2 at atmospheric pressure," Opt. Commun. 233, 373-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, "High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm," Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 4147 (2002).

Lucht, R. P.

S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and A. McIlroy, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of carbon dioxide," Appl. Phys. B 75, 875-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Reichardt and R. P. Lucht, "Theoretical calculation of line shapes and saturation effects in polarization spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5830-5843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mazzotti, D.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 μm," Opt. Lett. 32, 988-990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIlroy, A.

S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and A. McIlroy, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of carbon dioxide," Appl. Phys. B 75, 875-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meisel, E.

V. Stert, R. Fischer, E. Meisel, and H.-H. Ritze, "High-resolution polarization spectroscopy in the 10 μm region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1498-1499 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mukae, T.

Natale, P. D.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, I. Galli, T. Leveque, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Frequency-comb-referenced quantum-cascade laser at 4.4 μm," Opt. Lett. 32, 988-990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neusser, H. J.

A. Kiermeier, K. Dietrich, E. Riedle, and H. J. Neusser, "Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Photochemical hole burning of gas phase s-tetrazine," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6983-6990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Parpillon, V.

Raab, M.

M. Raab, G. Honing,W. Demtroder, and C. R. Vidal, "High resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4370-4386 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, T. A.

T. A. Reichardt and R. P. Lucht, "Theoretical calculation of line shapes and saturation effects in polarization spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5830-5843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

A. Kiermeier, K. Dietrich, E. Riedle, and H. J. Neusser, "Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Photochemical hole burning of gas phase s-tetrazine," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6983-6990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ritze, H.-H.

V. Stert, R. Fischer, E. Meisel, and H.-H. Ritze, "High-resolution polarization spectroscopy in the 10 μm region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1498-1499 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and A. McIlroy, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of carbon dioxide," Appl. Phys. B 75, 875-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rupinski, M.

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Detection of nascent CO2 and H2O in atmospheric pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 243-248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 135-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822-834 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Teets, R. Feinberg, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Simplification of spectra by polarization labeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 683-686 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sirigu, L.

Stert, V.

V. Stert and R. Fischer, "Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light," Appl. Phys. 17, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. Stert, R. Fischer, E. Meisel, and H.-H. Ritze, "High-resolution polarization spectroscopy in the 10 μm region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1498-1499 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. W.

Taylor, A. J.

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822-834 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Teets, R. E.

R. E. Teets, R. Feinberg, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Simplification of spectra by polarization labeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 683-686 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Torii, Y.

Umeki, T.

Vidal, C. R.

M. Raab, G. Honing,W. Demtroder, and C. R. Vidal, "High resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4370-4386 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Weidmann, D.

Wieman, C.

C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, "Doppler-free laser polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170-1173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, Y.

Zetterberg, J.

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Detection of nascent CO2 and H2O in atmospheric pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 243-248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 135-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, Z. S. Li, J. Zetterberg, and M. Alden, "Infrared polarization spectroscopy of CO2 at atmospheric pressure," Opt. Commun. 233, 373-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, "High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm," Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 4147 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Stert and R. Fischer, "Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy using linear polarized light," Appl. Phys. 17, 151-154 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Roy, R. P. Lucht, and A. McIlroy, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of carbon dioxide," Appl. Phys. B 75, 875-882 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Detection of methane with mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 135-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. B. Kim, H. J. Kong, and S. S. Lee, "Dye laser frequency locking to the hyperfine structure (3S1/2,F = 2?3P1/2,F = 2) of sodium D1 line by using polarization spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 417-419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. S. Li, M. Rupinski, J. Zetterberg, Z. T. Alwahabi, and M. Alden, "Mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Detection of nascent CO2 and H2O in atmospheric pressure flames," Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 243-248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

Z. T. Alwahabi, J. Zetterberg, Z. S. Li, and M. Alden, "High resolution polarization spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence of CO2 around 2 μm," Eur. Phys. J. D 42, 4147 (2002).

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

A. Kiermeier, K. Dietrich, E. Riedle, and H. J. Neusser, "Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: Photochemical hole burning of gas phase s-tetrazine," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6983-6990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Reichardt and R. P. Lucht, "Theoretical calculation of line shapes and saturation effects in polarization spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5830-5843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Raab, G. Honing,W. Demtroder, and C. R. Vidal, "High resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4370-4386 (1982).
[CrossRef]

JQRST (1)

M. Kuntz, "A new implementation of the Humlicek algorithm for the calculation of the Voigt profile function," JQRST 57, 819-824 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (2)

Z. T. Alwahabi, Z. S. Li, J. Zetterberg, and M. Alden, "Infrared polarization spectroscopy of CO2 at atmospheric pressure," Opt. Commun. 233, 373-381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. T. Lancaster, R. S. Conroy, M. A. Clifford, J. Arlt, and K. Dholakia, "A polarization spectrometer locked diode laser for trapping cold atoms," Opt. Commun. 170, 79-84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, I. Galli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, A. Castrillo, L. Gianfrani, and P. D. Natale, "Lamb-dip-locked quantum cascade laser for comb-referenced IR absolute frequency measurements," Opt. Express 16, 11,637-11,646 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. W. Carlson, A. J. Taylor, K. M. Jones, and A. L. Schawlow, "Two-step polarization-labeling spectroscopy of excited states of Na2," Phys. Rev. A 24, 822-834 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Wieman and T. W. Hansch, "Doppler-free laser polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170-1173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Teets, R. Feinberg, T. W. Hansch, and A. L. Schawlow, "Simplification of spectra by polarization labeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 683-686 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Stert, R. Fischer, E. Meisel, and H.-H. Ritze, "High-resolution polarization spectroscopy in the 10 μm region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 1498-1499 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed., (Springer, 3rd edition, 2002).

R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, T. N. Carlson, and T. W. Hansch, "Laser polarization spectroscopy," in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instruments Engineering, A. Zewail, ed., vol. 113, p. 80 (1977).

The HITRAN database is available at http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/HITRAN.

V. S. Letokhov, Saturation spectroscopy, High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy (Springer, 1976).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. The wire-grid polarizers P1 and P3 are used as polarizing beamsplitters. The rotation angle θ of the analysis polarizer P3 is adjusted with respect to P2 in order to obtain the desired signal: θ ~ 0° (P2 and P3 almost crossed) corresponds to the standard PS signal, while θ ~ 45° is used for the balanced detection. D1 and D2 are identical InSb detectors.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Polarization signals as calculated from Eq. (3) for different values of θ (from 0° to 90°). (b) Zoom of the polarization signal over the dashed area, for small values of θ. For the sake of clarity parameters have been changed in order to exagerate the effects.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Differential polarization signal for different values of θ, as calculated from Eq. (5). For the sake of clarity parameters have been changed in order to exagerate the effects. (b) The general expression Eq. (5) (red line) takes into account the signal deviation from the perfectly balanced profile (Eq. (6), dashed black line). This is typically caused by small deviations of the angle θ from 45°, required to compensate the signal offset coming from the ξ parameter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sub-Doppler Lamb-dip recording of the (0111-0110) P(30) transition of CO2, with a gas pressure of 20 mTorr.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) PS signal obtained for θ=2° and with the same experimental conditions as Fig. 4. (b) Comparison between the acquired polarization signals by switching from single to double-detection schemes. For the sake of clarity the line centers have been intentionally displaced.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Typical PS differential acquisitions with no average. The total sweep time is 2 ms, corresponding to a Lamb-dip observation time of about 20 μs. Some deformations of the signal with respect to the perfectly balanced profile (red line) often appeared (b). The fit result for the Lamb-dip width is, in both cases, about 1.5 MHz.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

PS differential acquisition (32 averages) and fit. The long observation time results in a broadened profile. The match of the fit curve with the experimental data is noteworthy.

Equations (6)

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Φ = ω 2 c [ L Δ n ( ω ) + Δ b r ] + i [ L Δ α ( ω ) 4 + Δ b i 2 ] .
Φ = 1 2 [ ( Δ α 0 L γ s 2 ( ω ω 0 ) ( γ s 2 ) 2 + ( ω ω 0 ) 2 + Δ b r ) + i ( Δ α 0 L 2 ( γ s 2 ) 2 ( γ s 2 ) 2 + ( ω ω 0 ) 2 + Δ b i ) ] ,
I t = 2 I 0 e α ¯ L sin θ cos Φ + cos θ sin Φ 2 ,
I r = 2 I 0 e α ¯ L cos θ cos Φ sin θ sin Φ 2 ,
I d I t I r = I 0 e α ¯ L ( ξ + sin ( θ + Φ ) 2 cos ( θ + Φ ) 2 )
I d = 2 I 0 e α ¯ L Re [ Φ ] = I 0 e α ¯ L [ Δ α 0 L γ s 2 ( ω ω 0 ) ( γ s 2 ) 2 + ( ω ω 0 ) 2 + Δ b r ] ,

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