Abstract

New system for a wide-field CARS microscopy is demonstrated, including two schemes of non-phase-matching illumination. Several advantages including high Stokes pulse energy, pulse-to-pulse stability and inherent synchronization between pump and Stokes pulses were brought by use of methane-filled Raman converter. Spatial resolution of the system with axially symmetric illumination, 0.5μm, was found to correspond to diffraction limit of the imaging objective. Selective sensitivity to lipid-rich myelin sheaths in the nerve tissue has been demonstrated and confirmed by comparison with histological samples stained with myelin-specific dye. Single-shot imaging capability of the system has been demonstrated with a speckling-free illumination on a monolayer of 3μm polystyrene beads.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Kohen and J. G. Hirschberg, Cell Structure and Function by Microspectrofluorometry (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).
  2. W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum Dot Bioconjugates for Ultrasensitive Nonisotopic Detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. P. Pfeffer, B. R. Olsen, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Legare, "Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of collagen arrays," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 140-145 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemically Selective Imaging for Biology and Medicine," Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883-909 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissue," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

C. P. Pfeffer, B. R. Olsen, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Legare, "Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of collagen arrays," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 140-145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemically Selective Imaging for Biology and Medicine," Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883-909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Heinrich, A. Hofer, A. Ritsch, C. Ciardi, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "Selective imaging of saturated and unsaturated lipids by wide-field CARS-microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 2699-2708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissue," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Heinrich, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "Wide-field coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 816-818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum Dot Bioconjugates for Ultrasensitive Nonisotopic Detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

Chan, W. C. W.

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum Dot Bioconjugates for Ultrasensitive Nonisotopic Detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissue," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciardi, C.

Cohn, K.

Cote, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dosev, D.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemically Selective Imaging for Biology and Medicine," Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883-909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissue," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganikhanov, F.

C. P. Pfeffer, B. R. Olsen, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Legare, "Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of collagen arrays," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 140-145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, B.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hammock, B. D.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, C.

Hinsberg, W. D.

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, A.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, Y. K.

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D.

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, I. M.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Legare, F.

C. P. Pfeffer, B. R. Olsen, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Legare, "Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of collagen arrays," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 140-145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leone, S. R.

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muntean, L.

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nichkova, M.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum Dot Bioconjugates for Ultrasensitive Nonisotopic Detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsen, B. R.

C. P. Pfeffer, B. R. Olsen, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Legare, "Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of collagen arrays," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 140-145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palanker, D.

Pfeffer, C. P.

C. P. Pfeffer, B. R. Olsen, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Legare, "Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of collagen arrays," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 140-145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Preusser, J.

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritsch, A.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Schade, W.

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, R.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissue," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simanovskii, D.

Smith, T.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toytman, I.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissue," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemically Selective Imaging for Biology and Medicine," Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883-909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zickmund, P.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissue," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemically Selective Imaging for Biology and Medicine," Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883-909 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Heinrich, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "Wide-field coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 816-818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (2)

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of Axonal Myelin in Live Spinal Tissue," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
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E. O. Potma, X. S. Xie, L. Muntean, J. Preusser, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. R. Leone, W. D. Hinsberg, and W. Schade, "Chemical Imaging of Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 1296-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

C. P. Pfeffer, B. R. Olsen, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Legare, "Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of collagen arrays," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 140-145 (2008).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Dosev, M. Nichkova, M. Liu, B. Guo, G. Liu, Y. Xia, B. D. Hammock, and I. M. Kennedy, "Application of fluorescent Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles to the visualization of protein micropatterns," Proc. SPIE 5699, 473-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of the experimental setup, with a closeup showing orientation of the pump, Stokes and CARS beams, relative to the sample and imaging objective. Cassegrain objective is represented by its internal mirrors.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Two-photon fluorescence images produced by Stokes beam in a 10μm layer of Rhodamin B solution; (b) Stokes beam averaged out by irregular movement of microlens array (scale bar is 10μm). Intensity profiles along the black lines are indicated to the left and at the bottom of each image.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental system for single-shot CARS imaging. Closeup shows pump and Stokes direction with respect to the axis of microscope objective.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). CARS image of 1μm polystyrene beads on a 10 μm Mylar film in air; bottom insert shows relative intensity profile along the white line; (b) CARS image of 1μm beads on a Mylar film immersed in water (scale bar is 10μm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)-(b) CARS images of the longitudinal and cross-sections of the rat spinal cord, respectively; (c)-(d) images of histological samples of the same tissue stained with toluidine blue; (e)-(f) fluorescent images of the same tissue stained with myelin-specific dye (FluoroMyelin green). Scale bar is 10μm in all images.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). CARS image of 3μm polystyrene beads obtained with a single pair of pulses; (b) bright-field image of the same sample of 3μm beads with non-symmetrical illumination; (c) bright-field image of the same sample with correct illumination. The insets show single bead profile along two perpendicular directions (scale bar is 10μm).

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