Abstract

To generate time-evolving atmosphere turbulence in real time, a phase-generating method for our liquid-crystal (LC) atmosphere turbulence simulator (ATS) is derived based on the Fourier series (FS) method. A real matrix expression for generating turbulence phases is given and calculated with a graphic processing unit (GPU), the GeForce 8800 Ultra. A liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) with 256×256 pixels is used as the turbulence simulator. The total time to generate a turbulence phase is about 7.8 ms for calculation and readout with the GPU. A parallel processing method of calculating and sending a picture to the LCOS is used to improve the simulating speed of our LC ATS. Therefore, the real-time turbulence phase-generation frequency of our LC ATS is up to 128 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the highest speed used to generate a turbulence phase in real time.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, and B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Appl. Opt. 43, 5458-5467 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-29-5458.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Aruga and Y. Kohyama, "Recovery of blurred images obtained through turbulent media," Appl. Opt. 42, 190-203 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-2-190.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. J. Lipowski, "Real-time data processing on graphics processors," Proc. SPIE 6159, 61594M-1-61594M-6 (2006).
  22. T. Schiwietz, S. Bose, J. Maltz, and R. Westermann, "A fast and high-quality cone beam reconstruction pipeline using the GPU," Proc. SPIE 6510, 65105H-1-65105H-12 (2007).
  23. R. Frehlich, "Simulation of laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 39, 393-397 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-3-393.
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. D. Schmidt, M. E. Goda, and B. D. Duncan, "Aberration production using a high-resolution liquid-crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 46, 2423-2433 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-13-2423.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Hu, L. Xuan, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, D. Li, and Q. Mu, "Phase-only liquid-crystal spatial light modulator for wavefront correction with high precision," Opt. Express 12, 6403-6409 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-26-6403.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, "Open-loop correction of horizontal turbulence: system design and result," Appl. Opt. 47, 4297-4301 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-23-4297
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

2004 (6)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

T. S. Taylor and D. A. Gregory, "Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical wavefront distortion," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 665-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

T. Kelly, G. D. Love, D. F. Buscher, R. M. Myers,C. N. Dunlop, Andrew Zadrozny and Ray M. Sharples, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation with liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 3749, 662-663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Dayton, S. Sandven, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, "Multi-segment spatial light modulators for the simulation of Kolmogorov turbulence," Proc. SPIE 3432, 73-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. M. Welsh, "Fourier-series-based atmospheric phase screen generator for simulating anisoplanatic geometries and temporal evolution," Proc. SPIE 3125, 327-338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. S. Taylor, A. S. Kransteuber, D. A. Gregory, and J. L. McClain, "Optical processing through turbulent media," SPIE 2752, 292-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aruga, T.

Assémat, F.

Bähr, J.

Bradley, C.

Brandner, W.

Brast, R.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, M. R.

M. R. Brooks and M. E. Goda, "Atmospheric simulation using a liquid-crystal wavefront controlling device," Proc. SPIE 5553, 258-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S.

D. Dayton, S. Sandven, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, "Multi-segment spatial light modulators for the simulation of Kolmogorov turbulence," Proc. SPIE 3432, 73-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buscher, D. F.

T. Kelly, D. F. Buscher, P. Clark, C. Dunlop, G. Love, R. M. Myers, R. Sharples, and A. Zadrozny, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation for adaptive optics," Opt. Express 7, 368-374 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-7-11-368.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kelly, G. D. Love, D. F. Buscher, R. M. Myers,C. N. Dunlop, Andrew Zadrozny and Ray M. Sharples, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation with liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 3749, 662-663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Butler, D. J.

Cao, Z.

Chanan, G. A.

Clark, P.

Dayton, D.

D. Dayton, S. Sandven, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, "Multi-segment spatial light modulators for the simulation of Kolmogorov turbulence," Proc. SPIE 3432, 73-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delabre, B.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, B. D.

Dunlop, C.

Dunlop, C. N.

T. Kelly, G. D. Love, D. F. Buscher, R. M. Myers,C. N. Dunlop, Andrew Zadrozny and Ray M. Sharples, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation with liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 3749, 662-663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Egner, S.

Franza, F.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frehlich, R.

Gendron, E.

Goda, M. E.

Gonglewski, J.

D. Dayton, S. Sandven, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, "Multi-segment spatial light modulators for the simulation of Kolmogorov turbulence," Proc. SPIE 3432, 73-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gonté, F.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D. A.

T. S. Taylor and D. A. Gregory, "Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical wavefront distortion," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 665-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Taylor, A. S. Kransteuber, D. A. Gregory, and J. L. McClain, "Optical processing through turbulent media," SPIE 2752, 292-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henning, T.

Hickson, P.

Hippler, S.

Hormuth, F.

Hu, L.

Jacob, S.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

Kelly, T.

T. Kelly, D. F. Buscher, P. Clark, C. Dunlop, G. Love, R. M. Myers, R. Sharples, and A. Zadrozny, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation for adaptive optics," Opt. Express 7, 368-374 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-7-11-368.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kelly, G. D. Love, D. F. Buscher, R. M. Myers,C. N. Dunlop, Andrew Zadrozny and Ray M. Sharples, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation with liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 3749, 662-663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keskin, O.

Kohyama, Y.

Kolb, J.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kransteuber, A. S.

T. S. Taylor, A. S. Kransteuber, D. A. Gregory, and J. L. McClain, "Optical processing through turbulent media," SPIE 2752, 292-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Mignant, D.

Li, D.

Liu, Y.

Love, G.

Love, G. D.

T. Kelly, G. D. Love, D. F. Buscher, R. M. Myers,C. N. Dunlop, Andrew Zadrozny and Ray M. Sharples, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation with liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 3749, 662-663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

Marchetti, E.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McClain, J. L.

T. S. Taylor, A. S. Kransteuber, D. A. Gregory, and J. L. McClain, "Optical processing through turbulent media," SPIE 2752, 292-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mu, Q.

Myers, R. M.

T. Kelly, D. F. Buscher, P. Clark, C. Dunlop, G. Love, R. M. Myers, R. Sharples, and A. Zadrozny, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation for adaptive optics," Opt. Express 7, 368-374 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-7-11-368.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kelly, G. D. Love, D. F. Buscher, R. M. Myers,C. N. Dunlop, Andrew Zadrozny and Ray M. Sharples, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation with liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 3749, 662-663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reversat, F.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandven, S.

D. Dayton, S. Sandven, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, "Multi-segment spatial light modulators for the simulation of Kolmogorov turbulence," Proc. SPIE 3432, 73-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J. D.

Schöck, M.

Sharples, R.

Taylor, T. S.

T. S. Taylor and D. A. Gregory, "Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical wavefront distortion," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 665-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Taylor, A. S. Kransteuber, D. A. Gregory, and J. L. McClain, "Optical processing through turbulent media," SPIE 2752, 292-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tharp, J. S.

J. S. Tharp and R. K. Tyson, "Measurement of the optical path difference over an atmospheric turbulence phase plate," Proc. SPIE 5490, 805-809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tisserand, S.

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R. K.

J. S. Tharp and R. K. Tyson, "Measurement of the optical path difference over an atmospheric turbulence phase plate," Proc. SPIE 5490, 805-809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

Welsh, B. M.

B. M. Welsh, "Fourier-series-based atmospheric phase screen generator for simulating anisoplanatic geometries and temporal evolution," Proc. SPIE 3125, 327-338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

Wizinowich, P. L.

Xu, W.

Xuan, L.

Zadrozny, A.

Appl. Opt. (8)

R. Frehlich, "Simulation of laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 39, 393-397 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-3-393.
[CrossRef]

T. Aruga and Y. Kohyama, "Recovery of blurred images obtained through turbulent media," Appl. Opt. 42, 190-203 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-2-190.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schöck, D. Le Mignant, G. A. Chanan, P. L. Wizinowich, and M. A. van Dam, "Atmospheric turbulence characterization with the Keck adaptive-optics systems. I. Open-loop data," Appl. Opt. 42, 3705-3720 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-42-19-3705.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Egner, W. Xu, and J. Bähr, "Broadband, static wave-front generation: Na-Ag ion-exchange phase screens and telescope emulation," Appl. Opt. 43, 2813-2823 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-14-2813.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, and B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Appl. Opt. 43, 5458-5467 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-43-29-5458.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot-air optical turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-20-4888.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Schmidt, M. E. Goda, and B. D. Duncan, "Aberration production using a high-resolution liquid-crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 46, 2423-2433 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-13-2423.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, D. Li, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, "Open-loop correction of horizontal turbulence: system design and result," Appl. Opt. 47, 4297-4301 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-23-4297
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

T. S. Taylor and D. A. Gregory, "Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical wavefront distortion," Opt. Laser Technol. 34, 665-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (6)

M. R. Brooks and M. E. Goda, "Atmospheric simulation using a liquid-crystal wavefront controlling device," Proc. SPIE 5553, 258-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kelly, G. D. Love, D. F. Buscher, R. M. Myers,C. N. Dunlop, Andrew Zadrozny and Ray M. Sharples, "Dual-conjugate wavefront generation with liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 3749, 662-663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Welsh, "Fourier-series-based atmospheric phase screen generator for simulating anisoplanatic geometries and temporal evolution," Proc. SPIE 3125, 327-338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, S. Tisserand, F. Franza, B. Delabre, F. Gonté, R. Brast, S. Jacob, and F. Reversat, "MAPS: a turbulence simulator for MCAO," Proc. SPIE 5490,794-804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Tharp and R. K. Tyson, "Measurement of the optical path difference over an atmospheric turbulence phase plate," Proc. SPIE 5490, 805-809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Dayton, S. Sandven, S. Browne, and J. Gonglewski, "Multi-segment spatial light modulators for the simulation of Kolmogorov turbulence," Proc. SPIE 3432, 73-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

SPIE (1)

T. S. Taylor, A. S. Kransteuber, D. A. Gregory, and J. L. McClain, "Optical processing through turbulent media," SPIE 2752, 292-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. J. Widiker and E. P. Magee, "Open-loop simulations of atmospheric turbulence using the AdAPS interface," Proc. SPIE 5894, 589404-1-589404-10 (2005).

J. D. Phillips, M. E. Goda, and J. Schmidt, "Atmospheric turbulence simulation using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5894, 589406-1-589406-11 (2005).

J. Lipowski, "Real-time data processing on graphics processors," Proc. SPIE 6159, 61594M-1-61594M-6 (2006).

T. Schiwietz, S. Bose, J. Maltz, and R. Westermann, "A fast and high-quality cone beam reconstruction pipeline using the GPU," Proc. SPIE 6510, 65105H-1-65105H-12 (2007).

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: AVI (736 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (736 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (736 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (736 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (736 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (736 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical layout to characterize the LC atmospheric turbulence simulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Gamma correction curve for the LCOS.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Multithread control of the LC atmospheric turbulence simulator (LC ATS).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time for every picture in our LC ATS. Crosses denote the total time of sending a picture and waiting for the LC response; stars denote the total time of generating wavefronts and gamma correction in the GPU.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Image measured with DU 897 CCD in optical layout; the unit along x and y is in pixels (a) before correction, (b) after correction.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Image of the light source disturbed by the LC ATS with different r0. The area is from the 200th to 260th pixel from the CCD along x and y, respectively. (a) r0 = 14.07 cm (Media 1). (b) r0 = 12.01 cm (Media 2). (c) r0 = 10.66 cm (Media 3). (d) r0 = 8.04 cm (Media 4). (e) r0 = 6.01 cm (Media 5). (f) r0 = 4.01 cm (Media 6). (736K per file)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Image of the light source disturbed by the LC ATS with different r0. (a) r0 = 14.07 cm. (b) r0 = 12.01 cm. (c) r0 = 10.66 cm. (d) r0 = 8.04 cm. (e) r0 = 6.01 cm. (f) r0 = 4.01 cm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of atmospheric turbulence simulation

Equations (6)

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Φ ( f r ) = 0.00969 k 2 d z C n 2 ( z ) ( | f r | 2 + L 0 2 ) 11 / 6 ,
ϕ k ( r ) = 2 · Re [ n = 0 N 1 n ' = 0 N 1 C n , n ' exp { j 2 π ( n x ̂ D p + n ' y ̂ D p ) } + n = 1 N 1 n ' = ( N 1 ) 1 C n , n ' exp { j 2 π ( n x ̂ D p + n ' y ̂ D p ) } ] ,
φ k ( r ) = 2 Re { ( exp ( j 2 π f x ) ) T [ C L exp ( j 2 π f x ) + C R exp ( j 2 π f y ) ] } ,
ϕ ( r ) = 2 ( x c T C 1 y c + x s T C 2 y s + x c T C 3 y s x s T C 4 y c ) ,
C L = Φ ( f ) / D p 2 · ( r 2 + i · r 2 ) ,
C R = Φ ( f ) / D p 2 · ( r 3 + i · r 4 ) ,

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