Abstract

We experimentally studied enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical phenomena, i.e., self-phase modulation due to optical Kerr effect and two-photon absorption (TPA) in a small group-velocity (Vg) linedefect guided-mode of AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal slab waveguide. We found that the phase shift ∆φ or nominal Kerr constant n2 and TPA coefficient β were strikingly enhanced due to small Vg as the band edge was approached, such that they were proportional to (Vg)-2; the nonlinear refractive index n 2 is enhanced proportional to Vg -1. We also observed that owing to this enhancement as well as an extremely small cross-section area, the energy required for inducing π-phase shift was very small, being of an order of a few pJ for 5 ps optical pulse and for a 0.5-mm long sample. Based on those results, we discuss the possibility of developing ultra-fast and ultrasmall all-optical switches that operate due to cross-phase modulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, for example, K. Asakawa and K. Inoue, Photonic Crystals; Physics, Fabrication and Applications, K. Inoue and K. Ohtaka, eds., (Springer, Heidelberg, 2004), Chap. 12.
    [PubMed]
  2. K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nded. (Academic Press, New York, 2003), Chap. 3.
  4. M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slowlight enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater.  3, 211–219 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Linear wave guiding in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212–8221 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Sugimoto, T. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1097 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The Nonlinear Optical Properties of AlGaAs at the Half Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  33, 341–348 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. C. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejico, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1140–1142 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K. W. Delong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guidedwave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  55, 1823–1825 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 26.
  14. Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).
  15. N. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, Y Sugimoto, T. Hasama, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Coupling characteristic of micro planar lens for 2 photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, Matsue, Japan, 2007), p. 484–486
    [PubMed]
  16. K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).
  17. H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C-H. Lin, and H-H. Lin, “Nonlinear refractive index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  62, 2465–2467 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001), Chap. 7
  21. T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-indexcontrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  84, 900–902 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  23. G. A. Sivilogon, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Marandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.  31, 1235–1237 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

G. A. Sivilogon, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Marandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.  31, 1235–1237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater.  3, 211–219 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, T. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1097 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-indexcontrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  84, 900–902 (2004)
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).

M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slowlight enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Linear wave guiding in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212–8221 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The Nonlinear Optical Properties of AlGaAs at the Half Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C-H. Lin, and H-H. Lin, “Nonlinear refractive index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  62, 2465–2467 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. C. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejico, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1140–1142 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Delong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guidedwave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  55, 1823–1825 (1989).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001), Chap. 7

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The Nonlinear Optical Properties of AlGaAs at the Half Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Andrejico, M. J.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. C. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejico, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1140–1142 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asakawa, K.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
[Crossref]

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Sugimoto, T. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1097 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).

N. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, Y Sugimoto, T. Hasama, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Coupling characteristic of micro planar lens for 2 photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, Matsue, Japan, 2007), p. 484–486
[PubMed]

See, for example, K. Asakawa and K. Inoue, Photonic Crystals; Physics, Fabrication and Applications, K. Inoue and K. Ohtaka, eds., (Springer, Heidelberg, 2004), Chap. 12.
[PubMed]

Asakawa, Kiyoshi

Awazu, K.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baetys, R.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Borel, P. I.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nded. (Academic Press, New York, 2003), Chap. 3.

Carlsson, N.

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).

Christodoulides, D. N.

De Angelis, C.

Delong, K. W.

K. W. Delong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guidedwave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  55, 1823–1825 (1989).
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. C. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejico, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1140–1142 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Ganainy, R.

Fan, S.

M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slowlight enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Linear wave guiding in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212–8221 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hasama, T.

N. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, Y Sugimoto, T. Hasama, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Coupling characteristic of micro planar lens for 2 photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, Matsue, Japan, 2007), p. 484–486
[PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hobson, W. S.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hutchings, D. C.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The Nonlinear Optical Properties of AlGaAs at the Half Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ibanescu, M.

Ikeda, N,

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, N.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, T. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1097 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).

N. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, Y Sugimoto, T. Hasama, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Coupling characteristic of micro planar lens for 2 photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, Matsue, Japan, 2007), p. 484–486
[PubMed]

Inoue, K.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
[Crossref]

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Sugimoto, T. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1097 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).

See, for example, K. Asakawa and K. Inoue, Photonic Crystals; Physics, Fabrication and Applications, K. Inoue and K. Ohtaka, eds., (Springer, Heidelberg, 2004), Chap. 12.
[PubMed]

Ippen, E.

Ironside, C. N.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ishida, K.

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

Ishikawa, H.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
[Crossref]

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

N. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, Y Sugimoto, T. Hasama, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Coupling characteristic of micro planar lens for 2 photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, Matsue, Japan, 2007), p. 484–486
[PubMed]

Ishikawa, Hiroshi

Islam, M. N.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
[Crossref]

Iwanow, R.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater.  3, 211–219 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slowlight enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Linear wave guiding in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212–8221 (2000).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slowlight enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Linear wave guiding in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212–8221 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kanamoto, K.

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

Kang, J. U.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The Nonlinear Optical Properties of AlGaAs at the Half Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kawai, N.

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).

Kawashima, H.

N. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, Y Sugimoto, T. Hasama, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Coupling characteristic of micro planar lens for 2 photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, Matsue, Japan, 2007), p. 484–486
[PubMed]

Kenan, R. P.

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kitagawa, Y.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, M.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lin, C-H.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C-H. Lin, and H-H. Lin, “Nonlinear refractive index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  62, 2465–2467 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lin, H-H.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C-H. Lin, and H-H. Lin, “Nonlinear refractive index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  62, 2465–2467 (1993).
[Crossref]

Locatelli, A.

Marandotti, R.

McMillan, J. F.

J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.  31, 1235–1237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. C. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejico, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1140–1142 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizutani, A.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Modotto, D.

Nakamura, H.

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

Nakamura, S.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, Y.

Oda, H.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
[Crossref]

Ohkouchi, S.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

Osgood, R. M.

J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.  31, 1235–1237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, N.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Panoiu, N. C.

J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.  31, 1235–1237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pozzi, F.

Ralph, S. E.

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rieger, G. W.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-indexcontrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  84, 900–902 (2004)
[Crossref]

Rochford, K. B.

K. W. Delong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guidedwave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  55, 1823–1825 (1989).
[Crossref]

Saifi, M. A.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. C. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejico, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1140–1142 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasaki, H.

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

Scelsi, G.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 26.

Sigmund, O.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sivilogon, G. A.

Slusher, R. E.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
[Crossref]

Soccolish, C. E.

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
[Crossref]

Soljacic, M.

Sorel, M.

Stanley, C. R.

Stegeman, G. C.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. C. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejico, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1140–1142 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. A. Sivilogon, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Marandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The Nonlinear Optical Properties of AlGaAs at the Half Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C-H. Lin, and H-H. Lin, “Nonlinear refractive index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  62, 2465–2467 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guidedwave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  55, 1823–1825 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, Y

N. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, Y Sugimoto, T. Hasama, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Coupling characteristic of micro planar lens for 2 photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, Matsue, Japan, 2007), p. 484–486
[PubMed]

Sugimoto, Y.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
[Crossref]

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Sugimoto, T. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1097 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).

Suntsov, S.

Takata, Y.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tan, R. K.

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

Tanaka, Y.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
[Crossref]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulmer, T. G.

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Verber, C. M.

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The Nonlinear Optical Properties of AlGaAs at the Half Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C-H. Lin, and H-H. Lin, “Nonlinear refractive index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  62, 2465–2467 (1993).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Linear wave guiding in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212–8221 (2000).
[Crossref]

Virk, K. S.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-indexcontrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  84, 900–902 (2004)
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, A.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, Y.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, Hiroshi Ishikawa, and Kiyoshi Asakawa,; “Ultra-fast photoniccrystal/ quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks,” Opt. Express 12, 6606–6614 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

Wong, C. W.

J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.  31, 1235–1237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanaka, A.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C-H. Lin, and H-H. Lin, “Nonlinear refractive index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  62, 2465–2467 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.  31, 1235–1237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-indexcontrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  84, 900–902 (2004)
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett (6)

S. T. Ho, C. E. Soccolish, M. N. Islam, W. S. Hobson, A. F. J. Levi, and R. E. Slusher, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in low-loss AlxGa1-xAs waveguides near half-gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  59, 2558–2560 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guidedwave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  55, 1823–1825 (1989).
[Crossref]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 231102:1-3 (2007)
[Crossref]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C-H. Lin, and H-H. Lin, “Nonlinear refractive index and two photon-absorption near half the band gap in AlGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  62, 2465–2467 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-indexcontrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  84, 900–902 (2004)
[Crossref]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N, Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, “Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  93, 051114 1-3 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (2)

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, G. I. Stegeman, C. N. Ironside, G. Scelsi, and R. M. Osgood, “Nonlinear Absorption in a GaAs Waveguide Just Above Half the Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  30, 1172–1174 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The Nonlinear Optical Properties of AlGaAs at the Half Band Gap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  33, 341–348 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron (1)

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, “Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Based Photonic Crystal Slab Waveguides for Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing Devices,” IEICE Trans. Electron.  E87-C, 316–326 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Mater (1)

M. Soljacic and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater.  3, 211–219 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys (1)

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. I. Borel, and R. Baetys, “Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device,” New J. Phys.  8, 208–244 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett (3)

J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.  31, 1235–1237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Z. Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, and C. M. Verber, “Two-photon absorptioninduced self-phase modulation in GaAs-AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.  24, 756–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. C. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejico, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett.  14, 1140–1142 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev (1)

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, and K. Asakawa, “Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev.  B65, 121308 (R); 1–4 (2002).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Linear wave guiding in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212–8221 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nded. (Academic Press, New York, 2003), Chap. 3.

See, for example, K. Asakawa and K. Inoue, Photonic Crystals; Physics, Fabrication and Applications, K. Inoue and K. Ohtaka, eds., (Springer, Heidelberg, 2004), Chap. 12.
[PubMed]

N. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, Y Sugimoto, T. Hasama, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, “Coupling characteristic of micro planar lens for 2 photonic crystal waveguides,” Proc. 19th Int’l Conf. Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IEEE, Matsue, Japan, 2007), p. 484–486
[PubMed]

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 26.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001), Chap. 7

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The calculated W1 line-defect band (dotted curve) in Al0.26Ga0.74As photonic-crystal slab waveguide; the hatched area denotes the range in which the incident laser wavelength is varied. (b) The transmittance spectrum of a sample observed in a range including the guided modes (hatched area).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of group refractive index n g=c /V g with wavelength in a wavelength range near the band edge of the line-defect guided-mode in a PhC WG. The solid curve denotes the theoretical one; the dotted curve is the dispersion of V g.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A typical example of spectral evolution of an optical pulse of 5.0 ps pulse-duration, transmitted through a PhC WG with varying the coupled power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Required coupled power Pπ (n 2) for yielding π phase shift as a function of wavelength. A theoretical one (solid curve) estimated on the basis of Eq. (4) is also presented for comparison. For detail, see the text.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of the observed n2-value with operating wavelength in a range near the band edge; the solid curve denotes the theoretical n2-value calculated on the basis of Eq. (5), (see the text).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Variation of output power P(L) as a function of input power P(0) (coupled power to the WG). (b). Plot of inverse transmittance as a function of P(0) for (a).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dependence of β on wavelength in a wavelength range near the line-defect band edge; for comparison, the theoretical expectation is also shown.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic of SMZ where PCDC, photonic crystal directional coupler; CP and SP are control pulse and signal pulse, respectively.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Variation of the two-photon figure of merit F with wavelength.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. A list of parameters at wavelengths of control(λ C)- and signal(λ S) pulses

Equations (14)

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Δ φ = L · Δ k = L · ( k / ω ) = L · ( ω / k ) 1 [ ω 0 ( Δ n / n 0 ) ] ,
Δ φ = ( 2 π λ 0 ) · L · ( c V g ) · ( n 2 n 0 ) · I .
Δ φ = ( 2 π λ 0 ) L ( c V g ) ( n ¯ 2 n 0 ) · E | 2 = ( 2 π λ 0 ) L ( c n 0 ) ( 1 V g ) 2 · n ¯ 2 · ( 2 ε ) · I ,
P π ( λ ) = ( 1 4 ) λ 0 ( n 0 ) [ S eff ( λ ) L eff ( λ ) ] [ n 0 n g ( λ ) ] 2 [ 1 n ¯ 2 ( λ ) ] ,
Δ φ = ( 2 π λ 0 ) · L eff . n ' 2 · ( P S eff ) ,
dI ( z ) dz = αI ( z ) β I 2 ( z ) ,
I ( 0 ) I ( L ) = exp ( αL ) [ 1 + β α I ( 0 ) ] β α I ( 0 ) ,
L D T 0 2 | β 2 , L W T 0 · [ ( V g C ) 1 ( V g S ) 1 ] 1 = ( T 0 · c ) · ( n g C n g S ) 1 ,
L NL = ( γ · P C ) 1 with γ ( 2 π λ 0 ) · ( n ' 2 A eff ) ,
L NL < L eff ( L α ) L , L NL L W , L L D .
L NL = 1.5 × 10 2 cm , L α = 2.5 × 10 2 cm , L W = 4.2 × 10 2 cm , L = 3 × 10 2 cm , L D = 1.5 cm .
I ( 0 ) L eff = 0 L I ( z ) dz .
I ( z ) = I ( 0 ) . f ( z ) , f ( z ) 1 exp ( αz ) { 1 + β α I ( 0 ) [ 1 exp ( αz ) ] } .
L eff = 0 L f ( z ) dz = 0 L dz exp ( αz ) . { 1 + β α I ( 0 ) [ 1 exp ( αz ) ] } = 1 β . I ( 0 ) In [ 1 + β . I ( 0 ) . L α ] .

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