Abstract

The pyramid sensor (PS) is an interesting alternative to the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) for astronomical Adaptive Optics (AO) because of its potential advantages in sensitivity and applicability to novel wavefront sensing schemes. The PS uses a pyramidal prism to perform a knife-edge test in two dimensions simultaneously and relies on modulating the position of the prism to increase the linear dynamic range. It has been suggested that this could also be accomplished by a static diffusing element. We test this idea and show that the diffuser produces a modulation effect. We compare the results of our PS to a SH WFS measuring spatial and temporal properties of real turbulence produced in the lab with a hot-air turbulence generator.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  9. R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).
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2008 (1)

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 872–886 (2008). 0808.0137.

2006 (1)

2004 (5)

J. B. Costa, M. Stumpf, and M. Feldt, “Testing a nonmodulated pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1304–1314 (2004).

R. Clare and R. Lane, “Comparison of wavefront sensing with the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1211–1222 (2004).

C. Innocenti and A. Consortini, “Estimate of characteristics scales of atmospheric turbulence by thin beams: comparison between the von Karman and Hill-Andrews models,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 333–342 (2004).

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233, 27–38 (2004).

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

2003 (4)

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, C. Bradley, S. Dost, and I. Sharf, “Hot-air turbulence generator for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5162, pp. 49–57 (2003).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

2002 (2)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).

2000 (4)

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 1076–1087 (2000).

S. Esposito, O. Feeney, and A. Riccardi, “Laboratory test of a pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 416–422 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4034, pp. 184–189 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic Wave Front sensor in closed loop Adaptive Optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

1998 (2)

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 3353, pp. 941–951 (1998).

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the “Generalized SCIDAR”,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86–91 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).

1995 (1)

P. Pugh, D. Lobb, D. Walker, and T. Williams, “Pupil-imaging wavefront gradient sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 312–317 (1995).

1993 (1)

J. M. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy - Principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).

1992 (1)

L. C. Andrews, “An analystical model for the refractive index power spectrum and its application to optical scintillations in the atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1849–1853 (1992).

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

J. M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 1114, pp. 215–217 (1989).

1976 (1)

1948 (2)

E. H. Linfoot, “On the theory of the Zonal Foucault Test,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 108, 428–445 (1948).

E. H. Linfoot, “On the Interpretation of the Foucault Test,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 193, 248–259 (1948).

1946 (1)

E. H. Linfoot, “A Contribution to the Theory of the Foucault Test,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 186, 72–99 (1946).

1917 (1)

Rayleigh, “On methods for detecting small optical retardations, and on the theory of Foucault’s test,” Philos. Mag. 33, 161–178 (1917).

Aceituno, J.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 872–886 (2008). 0808.0137.

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, “An analystical model for the refractive index power spectrum and its application to optical scintillations in the atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1849–1853 (1992).

Baruffolo, A.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

Baumeister, H.

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy - Principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).

J. M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 1114, pp. 215–217 (1989).

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the Size of the Isoplanatic Patch with Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics,” in Proceedings of a ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, held in Garching, March 21–24, 1988, Garching: European Southern Observatory, , pp. 693–703 (1988).

Bindi, N.

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 3353, pp. 941–951 (1998).

Bizenberger, P.

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

Bradley, C.

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, “Hot-air optical turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4888–4897 (2006).
[PubMed]

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, C. Bradley, S. Dost, and I. Sharf, “Hot-air turbulence generator for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5162, pp. 49–57 (2003).

Carbillet, M.

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

Cecconi, M.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

Clare, R.

R. Clare and R. Lane, “Comparison of wavefront sensing with the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1211–1222 (2004).

Consortini, A.

C. Innocenti and A. Consortini, “Estimate of characteristics scales of atmospheric turbulence by thin beams: comparison between the von Karman and Hill-Andrews models,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 333–342 (2004).

Costa, J. B.

J. B. Costa, M. Stumpf, and M. Feldt, “Testing a nonmodulated pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1304–1314 (2004).

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

Crimi, G.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

Diolaiti, E.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).

Dorner, B.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 872–886 (2008). 0808.0137.

Dost, S.

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, C. Bradley, S. Dost, and I. Sharf, “Hot-air turbulence generator for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5162, pp. 49–57 (2003).

Esposito, S.

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4034, pp. 184–189 (2000).

S. Esposito, O. Feeney, and A. Riccardi, “Laboratory test of a pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 416–422 (2000).

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 3353, pp. 941–951 (1998).

Farinato, J.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 1076–1087 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic Wave Front sensor in closed loop Adaptive Optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

Fedrigo, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

Feeney, O.

S. Esposito, O. Feeney, and A. Riccardi, “Laboratory test of a pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 416–422 (2000).

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4034, pp. 184–189 (2000).

Feldt, M.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 872–886 (2008). 0808.0137.

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

J. B. Costa, M. Stumpf, and M. Feldt, “Testing a nonmodulated pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1304–1314 (2004).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

Fini, L.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

Fuchs, A.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the “Generalized SCIDAR”,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86–91 (1998).

Ghedina, A.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

Ghigo, M.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

Henning, T.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 872–886 (2008). 0808.0137.

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

Henning, T. F. E.

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

Hippler, S.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 872–886 (2008). 0808.0137.

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

Innocenti, C.

C. Innocenti and A. Consortini, “Estimate of characteristics scales of atmospheric turbulence by thin beams: comparison between the von Karman and Hill-Andrews models,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 333–342 (2004).

Jolissaint, L.

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, “Hot-air optical turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4888–4897 (2006).
[PubMed]

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, C. Bradley, S. Dost, and I. Sharf, “Hot-air turbulence generator for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5162, pp. 49–57 (2003).

Keskin, O.

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, “Hot-air optical turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4888–4897 (2006).
[PubMed]

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, C. Bradley, S. Dost, and I. Sharf, “Hot-air turbulence generator for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5162, pp. 49–57 (2003).

Kirkman, D.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

Lane, R.

R. Clare and R. Lane, “Comparison of wavefront sensing with the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1211–1222 (2004).

Linfoot, E. H.

E. H. Linfoot, “On the Interpretation of the Foucault Test,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 193, 248–259 (1948).

E. H. Linfoot, “On the theory of the Zonal Foucault Test,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 108, 428–445 (1948).

E. H. Linfoot, “A Contribution to the Theory of the Foucault Test,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 186, 72–99 (1946).

Lobb, D.

P. Pugh, D. Lobb, D. Walker, and T. Williams, “Pupil-imaging wavefront gradient sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 312–317 (1995).

Marchetti, E.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 1076–1087 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

Masciadri, E.

Niero, T.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

Noll, R. J.

Peter, D.

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 872–886 (2008). 0808.0137.

Puga, E.

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

Pugh, P.

P. Pugh, D. Lobb, D. Walker, and T. Williams, “Pupil-imaging wavefront gradient sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 312–317 (1995).

Puglisi, A.

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

Ragazzoni, R.

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 1076–1087 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic Wave Front sensor in closed loop Adaptive Optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 3353, pp. 941–951 (1998).

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).

R. Ragazzoni, “Adaptive optics for giant telescopes: NGS vs. LGS,” in Proceedings of the Backaskog workshop on extremely large telescopes, pp. 175–180 (2000).

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, “On methods for detecting small optical retardations, and on the theory of Foucault’s test,” Philos. Mag. 33, 161–178 (1917).

Riccardi, A.

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4034, pp. 184–189 (2000).

S. Esposito, O. Feeney, and A. Riccardi, “Laboratory test of a pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 416–422 (2000).

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 3353, pp. 941–951 (1998).

Sharf, I.

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, C. Bradley, S. Dost, and I. Sharf, “Hot-air turbulence generator for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5162, pp. 49–57 (2003).

Stefanini, P.

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 3353, pp. 941–951 (1998).

Stumpf, M.

J. B. Costa, M. Stumpf, and M. Feldt, “Testing a nonmodulated pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1304–1314 (2004).

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

Tallon, M.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the “Generalized SCIDAR”,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86–91 (1998).

Tordi, M.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).

Tyson, R.

R. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic press, 1998).

Vérinaud, C.

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233, 27–38 (2004).

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

Vernet, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).

Vernin, J.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the “Generalized SCIDAR”,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86–91 (1998).

E. Masciadri and J. Vernin, “Optical technique for inner-scale measurement: possible astronomical applications,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1320–1327 (1997).
[PubMed]

Wagner, K.

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

Walker, D.

P. Pugh, D. Lobb, D. Walker, and T. Williams, “Pupil-imaging wavefront gradient sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 312–317 (1995).

Williams, T.

P. Pugh, D. Lobb, D. Walker, and T. Williams, “Pupil-imaging wavefront gradient sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 312–317 (1995).

Winker, D. M.

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

J. M. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy - Principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (4)

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, “Sensitivity of a pyramidic Wave Front sensor in closed loop Adaptive Optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23–L26 (1999).

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, “Pyramid Wavefront Sensor behavior in partial correction Adaptive Optic systems,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9–L12 (2001).

E. Diolaiti, R. Ragazzoni, and M. Tordi, “Closed loop performance of a layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,” Astron. Astrophys. 372, 710–718 (2001).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, “Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class telescopes and beyond,” Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731–744 (2002).

J. Mod. Opt. (3)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wavefront sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289–293 (1996).

L. C. Andrews, “An analystical model for the refractive index power spectrum and its application to optical scintillations in the atmosphere,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1849–1853 (1992).

C. Innocenti and A. Consortini, “Estimate of characteristics scales of atmospheric turbulence by thin beams: comparison between the von Karman and Hill-Andrews models,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 333–342 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1)

E. H. Linfoot, “On the theory of the Zonal Foucault Test,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 108, 428–445 (1948).

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, and E. Vernet, “A pyramid wavefront sensor with no dynamic modulation,” Opt. Commun. 208, 51–60 (2002).

C. Vérinaud, “On the nature of the measurements provided by a pyramid wave-front sensor,” Opt. Commun. 233, 27–38 (2004).

Philos. Mag. (1)

Rayleigh, “On methods for detecting small optical retardations, and on the theory of Foucault’s test,” Philos. Mag. 33, 161–178 (1917).

Proc. SPIE (13)

J. B. Costa, R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, E. Puga, and J. Farinato, “Is there need of any modulation in the pyramid wavefront sensor?” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 288–298 (2003).

J. B. Costa, M. Stumpf, and M. Feldt, “Testing a nonmodulated pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1304–1314 (2004).

P. Pugh, D. Lobb, D. Walker, and T. Williams, “Pupil-imaging wavefront gradient sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 312–317 (1995).

R. Clare and R. Lane, “Comparison of wavefront sensing with the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1211–1222 (2004).

J. M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 1114, pp. 215–217 (1989).

S. Esposito, A. Riccardi, and O. Feeney, “Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4034, pp. 184–189 (2000).

S. Esposito, O. Feeney, and A. Riccardi, “Laboratory test of a pyramid wavefront sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 416–422 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni, A. Ghedina, A. Baruffolo, E. Marchetti, J. Farinato, T. Niero, G. Crimi, and M. Ghigo, “Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 423–430 (2000).

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, “On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 869–877 (2003).

J. B. Costa, S. Hippler, M. Feldt, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, P. Bizenberger, E. Puga, and T. F. E. Henning, “PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the Calar Alto adaptive optics system,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4839, pp. 280–287 (2003).

J. B. Costa, M. Feldt, K. Wagner, P. Bizenberger, S. Hippler, H. Baumeister, M. Stumpf, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and T. Henning, “Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5490, pp. 1189–1199 (2004).

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, C. Bradley, S. Dost, and I. Sharf, “Hot-air turbulence generator for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 5162, pp. 49–57 (2003).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, “Adaptive optics for 100-m-class telescopes: new challenges require new solutions,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 4007, pp. 1076–1087 (2000).

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences (2)

E. H. Linfoot, “A Contribution to the Theory of the Foucault Test,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 186, 72–99 (1946).

E. H. Linfoot, “On the Interpretation of the Foucault Test,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 193, 248–259 (1948).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, and J. Vernin, “Focusing on a Turbulent Layer: Principle of the “Generalized SCIDAR”,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 86–91 (1998).

D. Peter, M. Feldt, B. Dorner, T. Henning, S. Hippler, and J. Aceituno, “PYRAMIR: Calibration and Operation of a Pyramid Near-Infrared Wavefront Sensor,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 872–886 (2008). 0808.0137.

Other (4)

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the Size of the Isoplanatic Patch with Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics,” in Proceedings of a ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, held in Garching, March 21–24, 1988, Garching: European Southern Observatory, , pp. 693–703 (1988).

R. Ragazzoni, “Adaptive optics for giant telescopes: NGS vs. LGS,” in Proceedings of the Backaskog workshop on extremely large telescopes, pp. 175–180 (2000).

A. Riccardi, N. Bindi, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and P. Stefanini, “Laboratory characterization of a Foucault-like wavefront sensor for adaptive optics,” in Proc. SPIE Vol. 3353, pp. 941–951 (1998).

R. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic press, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic diagram of the PS implemented in 1d is shown. The prism spatially filters the electric field phasor of the aberrated beam in the focal plane while splitting the light into two beams. The images of the pupils are formed on the detector by a second lens. The signals are generated by the difference of the illumination in the top and bottom pupil, normalized to the total intensity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A schematic diagram of the experimental setup is shown. Light from a fiber source is collimated and a tilt is introduced by the fold mirror. Using the beamsplitter the tilt was measured by the mini-Wavescope and the intensity in the re-imaged pupil of the PS was recorded. The turbulator was introduced into the setup by replacing the fold mirror and repositioning the source in line with the PS CCD.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

This plot shows the fractional change in intensity in the re-imaged pupil of the PS recorded with the DALSA CCD. The x and y error bars are less than or equal to the size of the data points. The slope of calibration curve for the 0.5° diffuser is 1.62 ±0.03 millirad-1 and 0.89±0.01 millirad-1 for the 1.0° diffuser. The linearity of the tilt response demonstrates the modulation effect provided by the diffuser and the fact that the slope decreases when the modulation angle is increased illustrates that the sensitivity of the PS is inversely proportional to the modulation angle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

This plot shows the temporal power spectra of the tilt mode of the turbulence produced by the turbulator calculated using the mini-Wavescope and PS data at a temperature difference of ΔT ≈ 140°C. Fitting was performed to extract the knee frequency at the transition between the low frequency and high frequency regimes. This frequency is related to the effective wind speed, νeff , of the turbulator by equation 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

In (a) the variances of the Zernike wavefront coefficient measured with the mini-Wavescope are shown. The results of Noll, 1976 were modified to included the attenuation of the inner and outer scale and the values for r 0, l 0, and L 0 were extracted by fitting the modified variances. Panel (b) shows the Zernike slope variances measured with the PS. Again fitting is used to obtain r 0, l 0, and L 0.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

This plot shows the dependence of r 0 on ΔT observed with the mini-Wavescope and the PS. The lines represent power law fits to the data with a fitting function of the form r 0 = AΔT -b . The fit parameters are log(A) = 2.44 ±0.11 and b = 0.89 ±0.08 for the mini-Wavescope and log(A) = 2.36 ±0.13 and b = 0.91 ±0.09 for the PS. The exponent, b, agrees well between the two sensors meaning that both WFS’s measure the same trend in r 0 vs ΔT

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The distribution of sensitivity values for the PS using a diffuser is shown in this histogram. The mean value is 1.76 mrad-1, close to the overall calibration constant of 1.62 mrad-1 from Fig. 3. The standard deviation is 0.9 mrad-1.

Equations (5)

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S ( x , y ) = U p + ( x , y ) 2 U p ( x , y ) 2 A 2
U p ± ( x , y ) = 1 2 E ( x , y ) i 2 π E ( x , t ) t x dx
S = { isgn ( f ) f > α λ α f f < α λ
f knee = 0.3 ν eff D
r 0 5 3 = 04234 ( 2 π λ ) 2 C N 2 Δ h

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