Abstract

Xerogel matrices, made by sol-gel techniques, are embedded with polystyrene spheres to promote multiple scattering of light. Varying the concentration of the spheres inside the matrix allows one to adjust the transport mean free path of light inside the material. Coherent backscattering measurements show that a range of transport mean free paths from 90 to 600 nm is easily achieved. The determination of the matrix refractive index permits a direct comparison to multiple scattering and Mie theory. Such tunable diffusive sol-gel derived samples can be further optimized as random laser materials.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Boris P. J. Bret, Nuno J. G. Couto, Mariana Amaro, Eduardo J. Nunes-Pereira, and Michael Belsley, "Controllable transport mean free path of light in xerogel matrixes embedded with polystyrene spheres: erratum," Opt. Express 17, 8395-8395 (2009)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-10-8395

References

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2008 (3)

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, "Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 120601 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hayashida, A. Kosuda, and J. Yoshinari,"A new class of photopolymer for holographic data storage media based on organometallic matrix," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5895-5899 (2008)
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garca, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma and C. López, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nature Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hungerford, A. Rei, and M. I. C. Ferreira, "Use of fluorescence to monitor the incorporation of horseradish peroxidase into a sol-gel derived medium," Biophys. Chem. 120, 81-86 (2006)
[CrossRef]

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, "Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films," Thin Sol. Films 496, 505-514 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, T. T. A. Dao, F. Chaput, A. Brun, N. D. Hung, and J.-P. Boilot, "Stable doped hybrid sol-gel materials for solid-state dye laser," Appl. Opt. 42, 2213-2218 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Richter and D. Lipka, "Measurement of the refractive index of silica aerogel in vacuum," Nucl. Instr. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 513, 635-638 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Gómez Rivas, R. W. Tjerkstra, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, "Tunable photonic strength in porous GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4498-4500 (2002)
[CrossRef]

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, "Physical one-way functions," Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

A. L. Moustakas, H. U. Baranger, L. Balents, A. M. Sengupta, and S. H. Simon, "Communication through a diffusive medium: Coherence and capacity," Science 287, 287-290 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E.W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, "Microlaser made of disordered media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997-2999 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Hungerford, K. Suhling, and J. A. Ferreira, "Comparison of the fluorescence behaviour of rhodamine 6G in bulk and thin film tetraethylorthosilicate derived sol-gel matrices," J. Photochem. Photobiol A 129, 71-80 (1999)
[CrossRef]

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. van de Lagemaat, and A. Lagendijk, "Strongly photonic macroporous gallium phosphide networks," Science 284, 141-143 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997)
[CrossRef]

P. Boutin, J. Mugnier, and B. Valeur, "A fast-responding optical pH sensor based on the fluorescence of eosin trapped in a TiO2 solgel thin film," J. Fluorescence 7, 215S-218S (1997)

1995 (3)

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple-scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rahn and T. A. King, "Comparison of laser performance of dye molecules in sol-gel, polycom, ormosil, and poly(methyl methacrylate) host media," Appl. Opt. 34, 8260-8271 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Robust acoustic time-reversal with high-order multiple-scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206-4209 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

J. L. Thomas, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Inverse scattering analysis with an acoustic time-reversal mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 637-640 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, T. Kitamura, M. Nogami, K. Uchida, and T. Yamanaka, "Luminescence of rhodamine dyes doped in amorphous silica glasses," J.Lumin. 60/61, 451-453 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

1988 (1)

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Light-scattering in strongly scattering media -Multiple-scattering and weak localization," Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575-3592 (1988)
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2692-2695 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, "Weak localization and coherent backscattering of photons in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696-2699 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

D. Stroud, "Generalized effective-medium approach to conductivity of an inhomogeneous material,"Phys. Rev. B 12, 3368-3373 (1975)
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1968), [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377-445 (1908)

Aegerter, C. M.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auzel, F.

Balents, L.

A. L. Moustakas, H. U. Baranger, L. Balents, A. M. Sengupta, and S. H. Simon, "Communication through a diffusive medium: Coherence and capacity," Science 287, 287-290 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baranger, H. U.

A. L. Moustakas, H. U. Baranger, L. Balents, A. M. Sengupta, and S. H. Simon, "Communication through a diffusive medium: Coherence and capacity," Science 287, 287-290 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolini, P.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Bianco, A.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Blanco, A.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garca, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma and C. López, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nature Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J.-P.

Boutin, P.

P. Boutin, J. Mugnier, and B. Valeur, "A fast-responding optical pH sensor based on the fluorescence of eosin trapped in a TiO2 solgel thin film," J. Fluorescence 7, 215S-218S (1997)

Braun, M. M.

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, "Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films," Thin Sol. Films 496, 505-514 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

Canva, M.

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E.W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, "Microlaser made of disordered media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997-2999 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Casalboni, M.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E.W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, "Microlaser made of disordered media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997-2999 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Chaput, F.

Dao, T. T. A.

De Matteis, F.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

De Mico, A.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Derode, A.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Robust acoustic time-reversal with high-order multiple-scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206-4209 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, B.

Ferone, V.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, J. A.

G. Hungerford, K. Suhling, and J. A. Ferreira, "Comparison of the fluorescence behaviour of rhodamine 6G in bulk and thin film tetraethylorthosilicate derived sol-gel matrices," J. Photochem. Photobiol A 129, 71-80 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, M. I. C.

G. Hungerford, A. Rei, and M. I. C. Ferreira, "Use of fluorescence to monitor the incorporation of horseradish peroxidase into a sol-gel derived medium," Biophys. Chem. 120, 81-86 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Robust acoustic time-reversal with high-order multiple-scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206-4209 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Thomas, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Inverse scattering analysis with an acoustic time-reversal mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 637-640 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuqua, P. D.

Garca, P. D.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garca, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma and C. López, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nature Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Gershenfeld, N.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, "Physical one-way functions," Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez Rivas, J.

J. Gómez Rivas, R. W. Tjerkstra, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, "Tunable photonic strength in porous GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4498-4500 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garca, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma and C. López, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nature Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Gouedard, C.

Gross, P.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashida, N.

N. Hayashida, A. Kosuda, and J. Yoshinari,"A new class of photopolymer for holographic data storage media based on organometallic matrix," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5895-5899 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Hench, L. L.

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, "The sol-gel process," Chem. Rev. 90, 33-72 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Hung, N. D.

Hungerford, G.

G. Hungerford, A. Rei, and M. I. C. Ferreira, "Use of fluorescence to monitor the incorporation of horseradish peroxidase into a sol-gel derived medium," Biophys. Chem. 120, 81-86 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Hungerford, K. Suhling, and J. A. Ferreira, "Comparison of the fluorescence behaviour of rhodamine 6G in bulk and thin film tetraethylorthosilicate derived sol-gel matrices," J. Photochem. Photobiol A 129, 71-80 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Husson, D.

Kelly, J. J.

J. Gómez Rivas, R. W. Tjerkstra, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, "Tunable photonic strength in porous GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4498-4500 (2002)
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

Kitamura, T.

Y. Takahashi, T. Kitamura, M. Nogami, K. Uchida, and T. Yamanaka, "Luminescence of rhodamine dyes doped in amorphous silica glasses," J.Lumin. 60/61, 451-453 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Knobbe, E. T.

Kosuda, A.

N. Hayashida, A. Kosuda, and J. Yoshinari,"A new class of photopolymer for holographic data storage media based on organometallic matrix," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5895-5899 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

J. Gómez Rivas, R. W. Tjerkstra, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, "Tunable photonic strength in porous GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4498-4500 (2002)
[CrossRef]

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. van de Lagemaat, and A. Lagendijk, "Strongly photonic macroporous gallium phosphide networks," Science 284, 141-143 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997)
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple-scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Light-scattering in strongly scattering media -Multiple-scattering and weak localization," Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575-3592 (1988)
[CrossRef]

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2692-2695 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1968), [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835]

Lipka, D.

D. Richter and D. Lipka, "Measurement of the refractive index of silica aerogel in vacuum," Nucl. Instr. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 513, 635-638 (2003)
[CrossRef]

López, C.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garca, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma and C. López, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nature Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Maret, G.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, "Weak localization and coherent backscattering of photons in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696-2699 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377-445 (1908)

Migus, A.

Mosk, A. P.

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, "Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 120601 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, "Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 32, 2309-2311 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moustakas, A. L.

A. L. Moustakas, H. U. Baranger, L. Balents, A. M. Sengupta, and S. H. Simon, "Communication through a diffusive medium: Coherence and capacity," Science 287, 287-290 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mugnier, J.

P. Boutin, J. Mugnier, and B. Valeur, "A fast-responding optical pH sensor based on the fluorescence of eosin trapped in a TiO2 solgel thin film," J. Fluorescence 7, 215S-218S (1997)

Nhung, T. H.

Nishida, F.

Nogami, M.

Y. Takahashi, T. Kitamura, M. Nogami, K. Uchida, and T. Yamanaka, "Luminescence of rhodamine dyes doped in amorphous silica glasses," J.Lumin. 60/61, 451-453 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Pappu, R.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, "Physical one-way functions," Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, L.

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, "Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films," Thin Sol. Films 496, 505-514 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Pizzoferrato, R.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Prosposito, P.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Rahn, M. D.

Recht, B.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, "Physical one-way functions," Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rei, A.

G. Hungerford, A. Rei, and M. I. C. Ferreira, "Use of fluorescence to monitor the incorporation of horseradish peroxidase into a sol-gel derived medium," Biophys. Chem. 120, 81-86 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

D. Richter and D. Lipka, "Measurement of the refractive index of silica aerogel in vacuum," Nucl. Instr. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 513, 635-638 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Righini, R.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Roux, P.

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Robust acoustic time-reversal with high-order multiple-scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206-4209 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Thomas, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Inverse scattering analysis with an acoustic time-reversal mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 637-640 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapienza, R.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garca, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma and C. López, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nature Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

Schuurmans, F. J. P.

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. van de Lagemaat, and A. Lagendijk, "Strongly photonic macroporous gallium phosphide networks," Science 284, 141-143 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seelig, E.W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E.W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, "Microlaser made of disordered media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997-2999 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Senesi, R.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, A. M.

A. L. Moustakas, H. U. Baranger, L. Balents, A. M. Sengupta, and S. H. Simon, "Communication through a diffusive medium: Coherence and capacity," Science 287, 287-290 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, S. H.

A. L. Moustakas, H. U. Baranger, L. Balents, A. M. Sengupta, and S. H. Simon, "Communication through a diffusive medium: Coherence and capacity," Science 287, 287-290 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Störzer, M.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroud, D.

D. Stroud, "Generalized effective-medium approach to conductivity of an inhomogeneous material,"Phys. Rev. B 12, 3368-3373 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Suhling, K.

G. Hungerford, K. Suhling, and J. A. Ferreira, "Comparison of the fluorescence behaviour of rhodamine 6G in bulk and thin film tetraethylorthosilicate derived sol-gel matrices," J. Photochem. Photobiol A 129, 71-80 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, T. Kitamura, M. Nogami, K. Uchida, and T. Yamanaka, "Luminescence of rhodamine dyes doped in amorphous silica glasses," J.Lumin. 60/61, 451-453 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, "Physical one-way functions," Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. L.

J. L. Thomas, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Inverse scattering analysis with an acoustic time-reversal mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 637-640 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjerkstra, R. W.

J. Gómez Rivas, R. W. Tjerkstra, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, "Tunable photonic strength in porous GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4498-4500 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Uchida, K.

Y. Takahashi, T. Kitamura, M. Nogami, K. Uchida, and T. Yamanaka, "Luminescence of rhodamine dyes doped in amorphous silica glasses," J.Lumin. 60/61, 451-453 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Valeur, B.

P. Boutin, J. Mugnier, and B. Valeur, "A fast-responding optical pH sensor based on the fluorescence of eosin trapped in a TiO2 solgel thin film," J. Fluorescence 7, 215S-218S (1997)

van Albada, M. P.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple-scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Light-scattering in strongly scattering media -Multiple-scattering and weak localization," Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575-3592 (1988)
[CrossRef]

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2692-2695 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Lagemaat, J.

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. van de Lagemaat, and A. Lagendijk, "Strongly photonic macroporous gallium phosphide networks," Science 284, 141-143 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Mark, M. B.

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Light-scattering in strongly scattering media -Multiple-scattering and weak localization," Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575-3592 (1988)
[CrossRef]

van Tiggelen, B. A.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple-scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

J. Gómez Rivas, R. W. Tjerkstra, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, "Tunable photonic strength in porous GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4498-4500 (2002)
[CrossRef]

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. van de Lagemaat, and A. Lagendijk, "Strongly photonic macroporous gallium phosphide networks," Science 284, 141-143 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vellekoop, I. M.

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, "Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 120601 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, "Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 32, 2309-2311 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J. K.

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, "The sol-gel process," Chem. Rev. 90, 33-72 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garca, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma and C. López, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nature Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008)
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997)
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple-scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P. E.

P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, "Weak localization and coherent backscattering of photons in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696-2699 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E.W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, "Microlaser made of disordered media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997-2999 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

Y. Takahashi, T. Kitamura, M. Nogami, K. Uchida, and T. Yamanaka, "Luminescence of rhodamine dyes doped in amorphous silica glasses," J.Lumin. 60/61, 451-453 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Yoshinari, J.

N. Hayashida, A. Kosuda, and J. Yoshinari,"A new class of photopolymer for holographic data storage media based on organometallic matrix," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5895-5899 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 25, 377-445 (1908)

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E.W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, "Microlaser made of disordered media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2997-2999 (2000)
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, R. W. Tjerkstra, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. J. Kelly, and A. Lagendijk, "Tunable photonic strength in porous GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4498-4500 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Biophys. Chem. (1)

G. Hungerford, A. Rei, and M. I. C. Ferreira, "Use of fluorescence to monitor the incorporation of horseradish peroxidase into a sol-gel derived medium," Biophys. Chem. 120, 81-86 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, V. Ferone, P. Prosposito, R. Senesi, R. Pizzoferrato, A. Bianco, and A. De Mico, "DODCI molecules incorporated in sol-gel glasses: the interaction with the silica matrix," Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 167-172 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, "The sol-gel process," Chem. Rev. 90, 33-72 (1990)
[CrossRef]

J. Fluorescence (1)

P. Boutin, J. Mugnier, and B. Valeur, "A fast-responding optical pH sensor based on the fluorescence of eosin trapped in a TiO2 solgel thin film," J. Fluorescence 7, 215S-218S (1997)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Photochem. Photobiol A (1)

G. Hungerford, K. Suhling, and J. A. Ferreira, "Comparison of the fluorescence behaviour of rhodamine 6G in bulk and thin film tetraethylorthosilicate derived sol-gel matrices," J. Photochem. Photobiol A 129, 71-80 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J.Lumin. (1)

Y. Takahashi, T. Kitamura, M. Nogami, K. Uchida, and T. Yamanaka, "Luminescence of rhodamine dyes doped in amorphous silica glasses," J.Lumin. 60/61, 451-453 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Hayashida, A. Kosuda, and J. Yoshinari,"A new class of photopolymer for holographic data storage media based on organometallic matrix," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5895-5899 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. Garca, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma and C. López, "Resonance-driven random lasing," Nature Photonics 2, 429-432 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. and Methods in Phys. Res. A (1)

D. Richter and D. Lipka, "Measurement of the refractive index of silica aerogel in vacuum," Nucl. Instr. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 513, 635-638 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. Stroud, "Generalized effective-medium approach to conductivity of an inhomogeneous material,"Phys. Rev. B 12, 3368-3373 (1975)
[CrossRef]

M. B. van der Mark, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Light-scattering in strongly scattering media -Multiple-scattering and weak localization," Phys. Rev. B 37, 3575-3592 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen and A. Lagendijk, "Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple-scattering events of light in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193-4196 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, "Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 120601 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2692-2695 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, "Weak localization and coherent backscattering of photons in disordered media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696-2699 (1985)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Thomas, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Inverse scattering analysis with an acoustic time-reversal mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 637-640 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Derode, P. Roux, and M. Fink, "Robust acoustic time-reversal with high-order multiple-scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206-4209 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

R. Pappu, B. Recht, J. Taylor, and N. Gershenfeld, "Physical one-way functions," Science 297, 2026-2030 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Moustakas, H. U. Baranger, L. Balents, A. M. Sengupta, and S. H. Simon, "Communication through a diffusive medium: Coherence and capacity," Science 287, 287-290 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. Vanmaekelbergh, J. van de Lagemaat, and A. Lagendijk, "Strongly photonic macroporous gallium phosphide networks," Science 284, 141-143 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Sol. Films (1)

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, "Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films," Thin Sol. Films 496, 505-514 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 1442 (1968), [Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835]

Other (7)

P. Sheng, Introduction to Wave Scattering, Localization, and Mesoscopic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1995)

H. Nakazumi, T. Tarao, S.-I. Taniguchi, and H. Nanto, "Fluorescent thin gel films using organic dyes and pigments," in Sol-gel optics IV, B. S. Dunn, J. D. Mackenzie, E. J. A. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3136, 159-167 (1997)
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brinker and G. W. Scherer, Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing (Academic Press, 1990)

K. Dou, X. Sun, X. Wang, and E. K. Knobbe,"Nonlinear absorption and emission of excited states in metalloporphyrin-doped sol gels" in Sol-gel optics IV, B. S. Dunn, J. D. Mackenzie, E. J. A. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3136, 48-56 (1997)
[CrossRef]

L. C. Klein, Sol-gel technology for thin films, fibers, preforms, electronics, and speciality shapes (Noyes publications, 1998)

L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Laser performance in dye molecules doped xerogels," in Sol-gel optics IV, B. S. Dunn, J. D. Mackenzie, E. J. A. Pope, H. K. Schmidt, and M. Yamane, eds., Proc. SPIE 3136, 94-101 (1997)
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (JohnWiley & Sons, New York, 1983)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Determination of the refractive index of the xerogel matrix, without PS spheres. The inset presents the setup scheme. The displacement of the back face of the sample, y, from a laser beam impinging on the front face, is monitored as a function of incident angle θ. Simple geometric optics allows the measurement of the matrix refractive index as 1.38 ±0.01. Knowing the refractive index of the matrix is a key characterization of the diffusive samples.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Determination of the transport mean free path of the sol-gel derived samples by coherent backscattering. (a) presents a schematic of the CBS setup. (b) shows the backscattered intensity vs. angle from backscattering, for three samples with different PS sphere concentration. The inset presents the detail of the top of the CBS cone for the most weakly scattering sample, rounded due to finite-thickness of the sample and setup resolution. The fit to the thickness-dependant theoretical lineshape of the CBS cone yields the transport mean free path. These samples have transport mean free path ranging from 90 to more than 600 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Determination of the scattering properties the sol-gel derived samples with embedded PS spheres. The inverse transport mean free path of the samples, measured from CBS, is shown vs. PS sphere concentration. The diffusion cross-section for the individual spheres is determined and found to be in good agreement with Mie theory predictions.

Equations (1)

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y = d { sin θ cos θ tan [ arcsin ( sin θ n ) ] }

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