Abstract

A new interferometer-based optical sensing platform with nanostructured thin films of ZrO2 or TiO2 as sensing environment has been developed. With the application of an IC compatible Si3N4 waveguide technology, Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices have been fabricated. The application of the glancing angle deposition technique allowed fabrication of nanostructured thin films as the optical sensing environment. Sensing ability of fabricated devices has been demonstrated through the refractive index measurement of a known gas. The transmission spectra and time response measurements have demonstrated a maximum phase shift of ??=?/10 and a |?Pout|=0.65 dBm. Devices with TiO2 film on the sensing region performed much better than devices with ZrO2, with sensitivity twice as high.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, and S. K. Dew, "Fabrication of thin films with high porous nanostructure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Steele, A. van Popta, M. Hawkeyea, J. Sit, and M. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013517 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

D. Celo, R. Vandusen, T. Smy, J. Albert, N. G. Tarr, and P. D. Waldron, "Low temperature plasma etching for Si3N4 waveguide applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 253-258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Steele, A. van Popta, M. Hawkeyea, J. Sit, and M. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Lambeck, "Integrated optical sensors for the chemical domain," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93-R116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2002 (3)

E. Drouard, P. Huguet-Chantome, L. Escoubas, and F. Flory, "?n/?T measurements performed with guided waves and their application to the temperature sensitivity of wavelength-division multiplexing filters," Appl. Opt. 41, 3132-3136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Harris, A. Huzinga, and M. Brett, "High-speed porous thin film humidity sensors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5, H27- H29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Gulen and M. N. Inci, "Thermal optical properties of TiO2 films," Opt. Mater. 18, 373-381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. W. McCall and A. Lakhatakia, "Integrated optical polarization filtration via sculptured-thin-film technology," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2179-2184 (2001).

2000 (3)

1995 (1)

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, and S. K. Dew, "Fabrication of thin films with high porous nanostructure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, "A gas sensor based on an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Sens. Actuators B  7, 672-676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

D. Celo, R. Vandusen, T. Smy, J. Albert, N. G. Tarr, and P. D. Waldron, "Low temperature plasma etching for Si3N4 waveguide applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 253-258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berthier, S.

Brett, M.

J. Steele, A. van Popta, M. Hawkeyea, J. Sit, and M. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Harris, A. Huzinga, and M. Brett, "High-speed porous thin film humidity sensors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5, H27- H29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Celo, D.

D. Celo, R. Vandusen, T. Smy, J. Albert, N. G. Tarr, and P. D. Waldron, "Low temperature plasma etching for Si3N4 waveguide applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 253-258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dakka, A.

Dew, S. K.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, and S. K. Dew, "Fabrication of thin films with high porous nanostructure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

Escoubas, L.

Fabricius, R. N.

R. N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, "A gas sensor based on an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Sens. Actuators B  7, 672-676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

Friedrich, L. J.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, and S. K. Dew, "Fabrication of thin films with high porous nanostructure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

R. N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, "A gas sensor based on an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Sens. Actuators B  7, 672-676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gulen, G.

G. Gulen and M. N. Inci, "Thermal optical properties of TiO2 films," Opt. Mater. 18, 373-381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harris, K.

K. Harris, A. Huzinga, and M. Brett, "High-speed porous thin film humidity sensors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5, H27- H29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hawkeyea, M.

J. Steele, A. van Popta, M. Hawkeyea, J. Sit, and M. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, R. G.

Hoekstra, H. J.

Hoekstra, J. W.

Hsu, S.

Huang, Y.

Huguet-Chantome, P.

Huzinga, A.

K. Harris, A. Huzinga, and M. Brett, "High-speed porous thin film humidity sensors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5, H27- H29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inci, M. N.

G. Gulen and M. N. Inci, "Thermal optical properties of TiO2 films," Opt. Mater. 18, 373-381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

R. N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, "A gas sensor based on an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Sens. Actuators B  7, 672-676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lafait, J.

Lakhatakia, A.

M. W. McCall and A. Lakhatakia, "Integrated optical polarization filtration via sculptured-thin-film technology," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2179-2184 (2001).

Lambeck, P. V.

Létant, S.

S. Létant and M. J. Sailor, "Detection of HF gas with a porous Si interferometer," Adv. Mater. 12, 355-359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maaza, M.

Martin, J. C.

McCall, M. W.

M. W. McCall and A. Lakhatakia, "Integrated optical polarization filtration via sculptured-thin-film technology," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2179-2184 (2001).

Parriaux, O.

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, and S. K. Dew, "Fabrication of thin films with high porous nanostructure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

S. Létant and M. J. Sailor, "Detection of HF gas with a porous Si interferometer," Adv. Mater. 12, 355-359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sella, C.

Sit, J.

J. Steele, A. van Popta, M. Hawkeyea, J. Sit, and M. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sit, J. C.

A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smy, T.

D. Celo, R. Vandusen, T. Smy, J. Albert, N. G. Tarr, and P. D. Waldron, "Low temperature plasma etching for Si3N4 waveguide applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 253-258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J.

J. Steele, A. van Popta, M. Hawkeyea, J. Sit, and M. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tarr, N. G.

D. Celo, R. Vandusen, T. Smy, J. Albert, N. G. Tarr, and P. D. Waldron, "Low temperature plasma etching for Si3N4 waveguide applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 253-258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valdhuis, G. J.

van Lith, J.

van Popta, A.

J. Steele, A. van Popta, M. Hawkeyea, J. Sit, and M. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Popta, A. C.

A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vandusen, R.

D. Celo, R. Vandusen, T. Smy, J. Albert, N. G. Tarr, and P. D. Waldron, "Low temperature plasma etching for Si3N4 waveguide applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 253-258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P. D.

D. Celo, R. Vandusen, T. Smy, J. Albert, N. G. Tarr, and P. D. Waldron, "Low temperature plasma etching for Si3N4 waveguide applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 253-258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wijn, R. R.

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Létant and M. J. Sailor, "Detection of HF gas with a porous Si interferometer," Adv. Mater. 12, 355-359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

K. Harris, A. Huzinga, and M. Brett, "High-speed porous thin film humidity sensors," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 5, H27- H29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. W. McCall and A. Lakhatakia, "Integrated optical polarization filtration via sculptured-thin-film technology," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2179-2184 (2001).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, and S. K. Dew, "Fabrication of thin films with high porous nanostructure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Celo, R. Vandusen, T. Smy, J. Albert, N. G. Tarr, and P. D. Waldron, "Low temperature plasma etching for Si3N4 waveguide applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 253-258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. V. Lambeck, "Integrated optical sensors for the chemical domain," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R93-R116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

G. Gulen and M. N. Inci, "Thermal optical properties of TiO2 films," Opt. Mater. 18, 373-381 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

J. Steele, A. van Popta, M. Hawkeyea, J. Sit, and M. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, "A gas sensor based on an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Sens. Actuators B  7, 672-676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, in Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Second ed., (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).

B. Dick and M. J. Brett, "Nanofabrication by glancing angle deposition," Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 6, 703-725 (2004).

L. M. Lechuga, F. Prieto, and B. Sepulveda, in Optical Sensors for Industrial and Environmental Applications, (Springer, 2003).

Optiwave, "Waveguide Optics Modeling Software Systems," in OptiBPM Technical Background, Ottawa, ON, Canada, (2005).

E. Hecht, Optics, (Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., Third ed., 1998).

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