Abstract

We present an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a single mode Q-switched nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser for terahertz generation in periodically poled lithium niobate with a new phase matching scheme. This new method leads to an emission of terahertz radiation close to the Cherenkov angle and to a parallel propagation of the pump and signal wave. The emission frequency of this novel source is chosen by the poling period to 1.5 THz. For spectral narrowing the signal wave of the OPO is injection seeded. In the optical spectrum also cascaded processes are observed demonstrating a powerful generation of terahertz waves.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Kawase, J.-i. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, M. B. Spurr, C. F. Rae, and M. H. Dunn, "Compact source of continuously and widelytunable terahertz radiation," Opt. Express 14, 1582-1589 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, C. Rau, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate Part 2: Experiments," Appl. Phys. B 86, 197- 208 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Weiss, G. Torosyan, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, R. Beigang, and Y. Avetisyan, "Tuning characteristics of narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Express 8, 497-502 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. W. H¨ansch, and B. Couillaud, "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of MgO:doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. L. Vodopyanov, "Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs," Laser & Photon. Rev. 2, 11-25 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, "Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs," Laser & Photon. Rev. 2, 11-25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, C. Rau, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate Part 2: Experiments," Appl. Phys. B 86, 197- 208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Edwards, D. Walsh, M. B. Spurr, C. F. Rae, and M. H. Dunn, "Compact source of continuously and widelytunable terahertz radiation," Opt. Express 14, 1582-1589 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of MgO:doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J.-i. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. W. H¨ansch, and B. Couillaud, "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Avetisyan, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Weiss, G. Torosyan, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, R. Beigang, and Y. Avetisyan, "Tuning characteristics of narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Express 8, 497-502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Weiss, G. Torosyan, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, R. Beigang, and Y. Avetisyan, "Tuning characteristics of narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Express 8, 497-502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couillaud, B.

T. W. H¨ansch, and B. Couillaud, "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, M. H.

Edwards, T. J.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H¨ansch, T. W.

T. W. H¨ansch, and B. Couillaud, "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of MgO:doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Kawase, J.-i. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J.-i. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of MgO:doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maki, K.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J.-P.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palfalvi, L.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of MgO:doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peter, A.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of MgO:doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polgar, K.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of MgO:doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rae, C. F.

Rau, C.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shikata, J.-i.

K. Kawase, J.-i. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spurr, M. B.

Theuer, M.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torosyan, G.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Weiss, G. Torosyan, J.-P. Meyn, R. Wallenstein, R. Beigang, and Y. Avetisyan, "Tuning characteristics of narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Express 8, 497-502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov, "Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs," Laser & Photon. Rev. 2, 11-25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

Walsh, D.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, C.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, C. Rau, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate Part 2: Experiments," Appl. Phys. B 86, 197- 208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of MgO:doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kawase, J.-i. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, R1-R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, "Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs," Laser & Photon. Rev. 2, 11-25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. W. H¨ansch, and B. Couillaud, "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Phase matching schemes. (a) Non-collinear phase matching also known as Cherenkov-phase matching. (b) “Conventional” quasi phase matching, grating vector parallel to pump wave propagation. (c) Slant-stripe periodic poling for quasi phase matching. (d) Novel quasi phase matching scheme with grating vector perpendicular to pump wave propagation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup of the OPO including the pump laser (Nd:YVO4), the grating stabilized seed laser and the Hänsch-Couillaud stabilization scheme.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left: Typical optical spectrum including cascaded, SFG and Raman processes. Right: Threshold behavior and correlation between signal power and THz (Golay cell-) signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Left: Fabry Perot scan of the THz output. Right: Tunability of the OPO measured by the peak wavelength of the signal wave and the Golay cell signal.

Equations (3)

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θ = arccos [ ( n P λ P n S ( λ P 1 λ THz 1 ) ) ( λ THz n THz ) ]
θ Cherenkov = arccos ( n IR n THz )
Λ = [ ( n THz λ THz ) 2 ( n P λ P n S ( λ P 1 λ THz 1 ) ) 2 ] 1 2 .

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