Abstract

Cellular development is highly influenced by the surrounding microenvironment. We propose user-reconfigurable microenvironments and bio-compatible scaffolds as an approach for understanding cellular development processes. We demonstrate a model platform for constructing versatile microenvironments by fabricating morphologically complex microstructures by two-photon polymerization (2PP) and then assembling these archetypal building blocks into various configurations using multiple, real-time configurable counterpropagating-beam (CB) traps. The demonstrated capacity for handling feature-rich microcomponents may be further developed into a generalized microassembly platform.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Ifkovits and J. A. Burdick, "Review: Photopolymerizable and Degradable Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications," Tissue Eng. 13,2369-2385 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials," J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. 1, 443-449 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Glückstad, D. Z. Palima, J. S. Dam, and I. Perch-Nielsen, "Parallel and real-time trapping, manipulating and characterizing microscopic specimens," Opt. Photon. News 19, 41 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, "Three-dimensional forces in GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps," Opt. Express 14, 5812-5822 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. I. R.  Perch-Nielsen, P. J.  Rodrigo, C. A.  Alonzo, and J.  Glückstad, "Autonomous and 3D real-time multi-beam manipulation in a microfluidic environment," Opt. Express 14, 12199-12205 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Glückstad, D. Z. Palima, J. S. Dam, and I. Perch-Nielsen, "Parallel and real-time trapping, manipulating and characterizing microscopic specimens," Opt. Photon. News 19, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (8)

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Ifkovits and J. A. Burdick, "Review: Photopolymerizable and Degradable Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications," Tissue Eng. 13,2369-2385 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials," J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. 1, 443-449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lim and H. J. Donahue, "Cell Sensing and Response to Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces Produced by Chemical and Topographic Patterning," Tissue Eng. 13, 1879-1891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P Satir, S. T. Christensen, "Overview of structure and function of mammalian cilia," Annu. Rev. Physiol. 69,377-400 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, C. A. Alonzo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, J. S. Dam, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, "2D optical manipulation and assembly of shape-complementary planar microstructures," Opt. Express 15, 9009-9014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

Y. Roichman and D. G. Grier, "Holographic assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures," Opt. Express 13, 5434-5439 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, "Four-dimensional manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. D. MacArthur and R. O. C. Oreffo, "Bridging the gap," Nature 433, 19 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Glückstad, "Sorting particles with light," Nature Mater. 3, 9-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic Control Using Colloidal Devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, "Geometric control of cell life and death," Science 276,1425-1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 22, 132-134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

A. S. G. Curtis and M. Varde, "Control of cell behaviour: Topological factors," J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 33, 15-26 (1964).
[PubMed]

Achilleos, D. S.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonzo, C. A.

Andar, A. Y.

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, G. H.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arneborg, N.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burdick, J. A.

J. L. Ifkovits and J. A. Burdick, "Review: Photopolymerizable and Degradable Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications," Tissue Eng. 13,2369-2385 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. S.

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, "Geometric control of cell life and death," Science 276,1425-1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. -Q.

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials," J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. 1, 443-449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, S. T.

P Satir, S. T. Christensen, "Overview of structure and function of mammalian cilia," Annu. Rev. Physiol. 69,377-400 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Claeyssens, F.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, A. S. G.

A. S. G. Curtis and M. Varde, "Control of cell behaviour: Topological factors," J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 33, 15-26 (1964).
[PubMed]

Dalby, M. J.

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dam, J.

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dam, J. S.

J. Glückstad, D. Z. Palima, J. S. Dam, and I. Perch-Nielsen, "Parallel and real-time trapping, manipulating and characterizing microscopic specimens," Opt. Photon. News 19, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, C. A. Alonzo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, J. S. Dam, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, "2D optical manipulation and assembly of shape-complementary planar microstructures," Opt. Express 15, 9009-9014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daria, V. R.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, "Four-dimensional manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Donahue, H. J.

J. Y. Lim and H. J. Donahue, "Cell Sensing and Response to Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces Produced by Chemical and Topographic Patterning," Tissue Eng. 13, 1879-1891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X. -Z.

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. -M.

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farsari, M.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotakis, C.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fourkas, J. T.

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gadegaard, N.

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaidukeviciute, A.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glückstad, J.

J. Glückstad, D. Z. Palima, J. S. Dam, and I. Perch-Nielsen, "Parallel and real-time trapping, manipulating and characterizing microscopic specimens," Opt. Photon. News 19, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, C. A. Alonzo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, J. S. Dam, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, "2D optical manipulation and assembly of shape-complementary planar microstructures," Opt. Express 15, 9009-9014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R.  Perch-Nielsen, P. J.  Rodrigo, C. A.  Alonzo, and J.  Glückstad, "Autonomous and 3D real-time multi-beam manipulation in a microfluidic environment," Opt. Express 14, 12199-12205 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, "Three-dimensional forces in GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps," Opt. Express 14, 5812-5822 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, "Four-dimensional manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Glückstad, "Sorting particles with light," Nature Mater. 3, 9-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

Hasan, E. A.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haverich, A.

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials," J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. 1, 443-449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herzyk, P.

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, "Geometric control of cell life and death," Science 276,1425-1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ifkovits, J. L.

J. L. Ifkovits and J. A. Burdick, "Review: Photopolymerizable and Degradable Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications," Tissue Eng. 13,2369-2385 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingber, D. E.

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, "Geometric control of cell life and death," Science 276,1425-1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 22, 132-134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S.

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kelemen, L.

Li, L.

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. Y.

J. Y. Lim and H. J. Donahue, "Cell Sensing and Response to Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces Produced by Chemical and Topographic Patterning," Tissue Eng. 13, 1879-1891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacArthur, B. D.

B. D. MacArthur and R. O. C. Oreffo, "Bridging the gap," Nature 433, 19 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marr, D. W. M.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic Control Using Colloidal Devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruo, S.

Mrksich, M.

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, "Geometric control of cell life and death," Science 276,1425-1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, O.

Ngezahayo, A.

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials," J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. 1, 443-449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nissen, P.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oakey, J.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic Control Using Colloidal Devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oreffo, R. O. C.

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. D. MacArthur and R. O. C. Oreffo, "Bridging the gap," Nature 433, 19 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ormos, P.

Ovsianikov, A.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials," J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. 1, 443-449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palima, D. Z.

J. Glückstad, D. Z. Palima, J. S. Dam, and I. Perch-Nielsen, "Parallel and real-time trapping, manipulating and characterizing microscopic specimens," Opt. Photon. News 19, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perch-Nielsen, I.

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, D. Z. Palima, J. S. Dam, and I. Perch-Nielsen, "Parallel and real-time trapping, manipulating and characterizing microscopic specimens," Opt. Photon. News 19, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Ranella, A.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, C.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riehle, M. O.

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, P. J.

Roichman, Y.

Satir, P

P Satir, S. T. Christensen, "Overview of structure and function of mammalian cilia," Annu. Rev. Physiol. 69,377-400 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schlie, S.

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials," J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. 1, 443-449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shizhou, X.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegumfeldt, H.

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stapelfeldt, H.

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeyasu, N.

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tare, R.

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terray, A.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic Control Using Colloidal Devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thøgersen, J.

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ulriksen, H. U.

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valkai, S.

Vamvakaki, M.

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varde, M.

A. S. G. Curtis and M. Varde, "Control of cell behaviour: Topological factors," J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 33, 15-26 (1964).
[PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, "Geometric control of cell life and death," Science 276,1425-1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, C. D. W.

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xing, J. F.

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1)

P Satir, S. T. Christensen, "Overview of structure and function of mammalian cilia," Annu. Rev. Physiol. 69,377-400 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. F. Xing, X. -Z. Dong, W. -Q. Chen, X. -M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, "Four-dimensional manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1)

N. Arneborg, H. Siegumfeldt, G. H. Andersen, P. Nissen, V. R. Daria, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture," FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245, 155-159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. (1)

H. U. Ulriksen, J. Thøgersen, S. Keiding, I. Perch-Nielsen, J. Dam, D. Z. Palima, H. Stapelfeldt, and J. Glückstad, "Independent trapping, manipulation and characterization by an all-optical biophotonics workstation," J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 3,08034 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. (1)

A. S. G. Curtis and M. Varde, "Control of cell behaviour: Topological factors," J. Natl. Cancer. Inst. 33, 15-26 (1964).
[PubMed]

J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. (1)

A. Ovsianikov, S. Schlie, A. Ngezahayo, A. Haverich, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials," J. Tissue Engin. Regen. Med. 1, 443-449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

F. Claeyssens, E. A. Hasan, A. Gaidukeviciute, D. S. Achilleos, A. Ranella, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, C. Fotakis, M. Vamvakaki, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Farsari, "Three-Dimensional Biodegradable Structures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization," Langmuir 25, 3219-3223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Today (1)

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

B. D. MacArthur and R. O. C. Oreffo, "Bridging the gap," Nature 433, 19 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (2)

M. J. Dalby, N. Gadegaard, R. Tare, A. Y. Andar, M. O. Riehle, P. Herzyk, C. D. W. Wilkinson, and R. O. C. Oreffo, "The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder," Nature Mater. 6, 997-1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, "Sorting particles with light," Nature Mater. 3, 9-10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Glückstad, D. Z. Palima, J. S. Dam, and I. Perch-Nielsen, "Parallel and real-time trapping, manipulating and characterizing microscopic specimens," Opt. Photon. News 19, 41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, "Microfluidic Control Using Colloidal Devices," Science 296, 1841-1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, "Geometric control of cell life and death," Science 276,1425-1428 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tissue Eng. (2)

J. L. Ifkovits and J. A. Burdick, "Review: Photopolymerizable and Degradable Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications," Tissue Eng. 13,2369-2385 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lim and H. J. Donahue, "Cell Sensing and Response to Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces Produced by Chemical and Topographic Patterning," Tissue Eng. 13, 1879-1891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (937 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (684 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2494 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of 2PP-fabricated microstructures. The submicron lateral and axial resolution of resin solidification and the nanometer-precise 3D scanning paths enable 2PP to render the fine features of the microscale dumbbell (left) and its complementary primitive (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Stable 3D optical manipulation of a microstructure. (a) Schematic of multiple counterpropagating-beam traps for controlled manipulation of dumbbell microstructures with five degrees of freedom (x, y, z, θ, and ϕ). (b)–(d): Snapshots of controlled axial displacement of a dumbbell microstructure at fixed azimuth and zenith orientations (Media 1, 2x speed). (e)–(g): Snapshots of tip-tilt control of a dumbbell microstructure (Media 2, 2x speed). A second set of optical traps holds another dumbbell in place for reference. Overlays show relevant quantities.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Snapshots from acquired video illustrating optical microassembly of reconfigurable microenvironments using 2PP-fabricated components (Media 3, 3x speed). (a) A cluster of four CB traps is selected to rotate a microblock in 2D. (b) 3D optical manipulation of dumbbell microstructures with a pair of CB traps fitting spherical lobes to holes of complementary microblock. (c) Successful assembly of all the microcomponents. (d) Grouping all CB traps to collectively manipulate the entire assembly of microscale building blocks.

Metrics