Abstract

The recent emergence of multicore architectures and chip multiprocessors (CMPs) has accelerated the bandwidth requirements in high-performance processors for both on-chip and off-chip interconnects. For next generation computing clusters, the delivery of scalable power efficient off-chip communications to each compute node has emerged as a key bottleneck to realizing the full computational performance of these systems. The power dissipation is dominated by the off-chip interface and the necessity to drive high-speed signals over long distances. We present a scalable photonic network interface approach that fully exploits the bandwidth capacity offered by optical interconnects while offering significant power savings over traditional E/O and O/E approaches. The power-efficient interface optically aggregates electronic serial data streams into a multiple WDM channel packet structure at time-of-flight latencies. We demonstrate a scalable optical network interface with 70% improvement in power efficiency for a complete end-to-end PCI Express data transfer.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

2006

E.  Dulkeith, F.  Xia, L.  Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Group Index and Group Velocity Dispersion in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires," Opt. Express 14, 3853-3863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.  Gunn, "CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects," IEEE Micro,  26, 58-66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.  Soref, "The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Koester, J.  Schaub, G.  Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, "Germanium-on-SOI Infrared Detectors for Integrated Photonic Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1489-1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

M. Kistler, M. Perrone, and F. Petrini, "Cell Multiprocessor Communication Network: Built for Speed," IEEE Micro. 26, 10-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Li, E. Towe, and M. W. Haney, Eds., "Special Issue on Optical Interconnections for Digital Systems," Proc. IEEE 88, 723-863, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baauw, D.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C.

D. M. Kuchta, Y. Taira, C. Baks, G. McVicker, L. Schares, and H. Numata, "Optical Interconnects for Servers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6642-6645 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of Optical interconnects in Future Server Architecture," IBM J. of Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Cheben, P.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Chu, J. O.

S. J. Koester, J.  Schaub, G.  Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, "Germanium-on-SOI Infrared Detectors for Integrated Photonic Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1489-1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dehlinger, G.

S. J. Koester, J.  Schaub, G.  Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, "Germanium-on-SOI Infrared Detectors for Integrated Photonic Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1489-1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delge, A.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dulkeith, E.

Flautner, K.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Gunn, C.

C.  Gunn, "CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects," IEEE Micro,  26, 58-66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Haney, M. W.

Y. Li, E. Towe, and M. W. Haney, Eds., "Special Issue on Optical Interconnections for Digital Systems," Proc. IEEE 88, 723-863, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J. S.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of Optical interconnects in Future Server Architecture," IBM J. of Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, M. J.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Kandemir, M.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of Optical interconnects in Future Server Architecture," IBM J. of Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Kim, N. S.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Kistler, M.

M. Kistler, M. Perrone, and F. Petrini, "Cell Multiprocessor Communication Network: Built for Speed," IEEE Micro. 26, 10-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koester, S. J.

S. J. Koester, J.  Schaub, G.  Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, "Germanium-on-SOI Infrared Detectors for Integrated Photonic Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1489-1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

D. M. Kuchta, Y. Taira, C. Baks, G. McVicker, L. Schares, and H. Numata, "Optical Interconnects for Servers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6642-6645 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of Optical interconnects in Future Server Architecture," IBM J. of Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. P.

Lamontagne, B.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Lee, J.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Lee, Y. S.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Li, Y.

Y. Li, E. Towe, and M. W. Haney, Eds., "Special Issue on Optical Interconnections for Digital Systems," Proc. IEEE 88, 723-863, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

Lipson, M.

McVicker, G.

D. M. Kuchta, Y. Taira, C. Baks, G. McVicker, L. Schares, and H. Numata, "Optical Interconnects for Servers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6642-6645 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mudge, T.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, V.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. S. Hu, M. J. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, "Leakage current: Moore's law meets static power," Computer 36, 68-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Numata, H.

D. M. Kuchta, Y. Taira, C. Baks, G. McVicker, L. Schares, and H. Numata, "Optical Interconnects for Servers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6642-6645 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, Y.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Pei-Cheng, K.

Perrone, M.

M. Kistler, M. Perrone, and F. Petrini, "Cell Multiprocessor Communication Network: Built for Speed," IEEE Micro. 26, 10-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrini, F.

M. Kistler, M. Perrone, and F. Petrini, "Cell Multiprocessor Communication Network: Built for Speed," IEEE Micro. 26, 10-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Picard, M.-J.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, M. B.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of Optical interconnects in Future Server Architecture," IBM J. of Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

D. M. Kuchta, Y. Taira, C. Baks, G. McVicker, L. Schares, and H. Numata, "Optical Interconnects for Servers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6642-6645 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E.  Dulkeith, F.  Xia, L.  Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Group Index and Group Velocity Dispersion in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires," Opt. Express 14, 3853-3863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaub, J.

S. J. Koester, J.  Schaub, G.  Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, "Germanium-on-SOI Infrared Detectors for Integrated Photonic Applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  12, 1489-1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J.

S.  Janz, P.  Cheben, D.  Dalacu, A.  Delge, A.  Densmore, B.  Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, E.  Post, J.  Schmid, H.  Waldron, D.-X. X. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonic Elements for integration on the Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

Small, B. A.

Song, J. H.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Song, J.  Lee, S. Y. Kim, J.  Cho, Y. S. Lee, D.  Hand, S.  Jung, and Y.  Oh, "Reduction of Insertion Loss of Thin Film Filters Embedded in PLC Platforms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1041-1135 (2006).

Soref, R.

R.  Soref, "The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taira, Y.

D. M. Kuchta, Y. Taira, C. Baks, G. McVicker, L. Schares, and H. Numata, "Optical Interconnects for Servers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6642-6645 (2008).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transparent optical photonic network interface for high throughput communications infrastructure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Serial electronic packets mapped onto 8 WDM channels (W0 to W7) and TDM interleaved by up to 8 lanes to maximize link utilization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Detailed schematic of the all-optical PCIe photonic network interface experimental demonstration. The PCIe packet is partitioned onto eight payload channels (W0 to W7) using bandpass filters and optical fiber delay lines in the PCIe-to-WDM block of the interface. The PCIe packet is reconstructed in the WDM-to-PCIe block before being converted to an electrical signal using a broadband receiver (RX). The power and wavelength of each payload channel is monitored and adjusted using an optical wavelength-monitoring (OWM) scheme employing an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and controls the cooled DFBs (W0 to W7).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Output packet in the time-domain with each wavelength (W0 to W7) carrying a segment of the PCIe packet. (b) The reconstructed packet at the destination node: (top) optical signal with each packet segment encoded on a different wavelength (W0 to W7); (bottom) electrical PCIe data stream with each PCIe segment annotated.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured power penalty of the photonic interface.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Optical eye diagram of PCIe training sequence at 1544.53 nm at the output of the egress node and (b) electrical eye diagram at destination.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic representation of host and endpoint system organization as experimentally implemented. The optical interface is inserted inline with the upstream link.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Receiver output signal showing the timing alignment between PCIe[2] and PCIe[3] data for the three possible cases. (b) Corresponding digitized output signal of the analyzer for all three cases, exhibiting an error in the case of excessive timing skew.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Maximum interconnection length versus the number of wavelength channels based on chromatic dispersion for 0.8 nm (solid black line), 0.4 nm (dashed line) channel spacing and for a Silicon Photonic (SiP) waveguide (light gray).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Number of WDM channels required to map a x16 PCIe packet using space division (4 parallel waveguides).

Equations (2)

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P tot , elec = N ( P static + C V D D 2 A f S )
P tot , WDW P tot , elec = P static + N · C V D D 2 f s N · P static + N · C V D D 2 f s

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