Abstract

We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution dased on polarization encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.L. Yuan, A.W. Sharpe, and A.J. Shields, “Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Inamori, N. Ltkenhaus, and D. Mayers, “Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution,” Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599–627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, A. Sahara, E. Yamazaki, and H. Takahashi, “Quantum key distribution experiment through a PLC matrix switch,” Opt. Commun. 263, 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, “Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network,” Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD”, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors”, Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network,” in Quantum Information and Computation III, E. J. Donkor, A. R. Pirich, and H. E. Brandt, eds., Proc. SPIE 5815, 138–149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security”, J. Cryptology 18, 133 (2005)).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, “Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quant. Inf. Comput. 5, 325–360 (2004).

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762–3764 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakassis, J. C. Bienfang, and C. J. Williams, “Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 5436, 28–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “‘Circular type’ quantum key distribution,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Elliott, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys. 4, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, “Quantum cryptography on multi-user optical fibre networks,” Nature 385, 47–49 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155–1163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, “Quantum cryptography with coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

P. D. Townsend, S.J.D. Phonenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Quantum cryptography for multi-user passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1875–1877 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

G. S. Vernam, “Cipher printing telegraph system for secret wire and radio telegraph communications”, J. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng. XLV, 109–115 (1926).

Abe, J.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “‘Circular type’ quantum key distribution,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ardehali, M.

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security”, J. Cryptology 18, 133 (2005)).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Wen, T. Hirohata, M. Suyama, Y. Takiguchi, H. Kamada, Y. Tokura, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and Y. Yamamoto, “Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution,” eprint arxiv:quant-ph/0809.4018 (2008).

Assche, G. V.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X.-H.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155–1163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, S.J.D. Phonenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Quantum cryptography for multi-user passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1875–1877 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, C.

D. Stucki, C. Barreiro, S. Fasel, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, R. Thew, Y. Thoma, P. Trinkler, F. Vannel, and H. Zbinden, “High speed coherent one-way quantum key distribution prototype”, eprint arxiv:quant-ph/0809.5264 (2008).

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conferenceon Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, (Bangalore, India, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Bienfang, J.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, “Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network,” Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bienfang, J. C.

A. Nakassis, J. C. Bienfang, and C. J. Williams, “Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 5436, 28–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

S. J. D. Phoenix, S. M. Barnett, P. D. Townsend, and K. J. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 72, 1155–1163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, S.J.D. Phonenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Quantum cryptography for multi-user passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1875–1877 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boileau, J.-C.

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boisvert, R. F.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, “Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network,” Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B. C. Sanders, “Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conferenceon Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, (Bangalore, India, 1984), pp. 175–179.

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT ’93, Vol. 765 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (Springer, Berlin, 1994), pp. 410–423.

Brouri, R.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerf, N. J.

F. Grosshans, G. V. Assche, J. Wenger, R. Brouri, N. J. Cerf, and P. Grangier, “Quantum key distribution using Gaussian-modulated coherent states,” Nature 421, 238–241 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, H. F.

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security”, J. Cryptology 18, 133 (2005)).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X.-F. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Chen, J. Zhang, J.-C. Boileau, X.-M. Jin, B. Yang, Q. Zhang, T. Yang, R. Laflamme, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental quantum communication without a shared reference frame,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 150504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, Z.-F. Han, T. Zhang, H. Wen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-X. Xu, Q.-L. Wu, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, X.-F. Mo, Y.-Z. Gui, G. Wei, and G.-C. Guo, “Field experimental ‘star type’ metropolitan quantum key distribution network,” eprint arxiv:quant-ph/0708.3546 (2007).

Clark, C.

X. Tang, L.-J. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. Clark, and C. Williams, “Demonstration of an active quantum key distribution network,” Proc. SPIE 6305, 630506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, A.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network,” in Quantum Information and Computation III, E. J. Donkor, A. R. Pirich, and H. E. Brandt, eds., Proc. SPIE 5815, 138–149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, C.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network,” in Quantum Information and Computation III, E. J. Donkor, A. R. Pirich, and H. E. Brandt, eds., Proc. SPIE 5815, 138–149 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Elliott, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys. 4, 46 (2002).
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Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, and A. A. Rochas, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD”, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chained network architecture of our quantum cryptography network. Two sets of decoy-state QKD systems are installed for Binhu-USTC link and USTC-Xinglin link, respectively. The QKD systems have been updated in a large degree to match seamless integration with real-time audio communication by using one-time pad encryption, among the three nodes. The red dashed line indicates the fiber running out of the map.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sketch of the experimental setup for one QKD-link. With a random choice of measurement basis controlled by the phase modulator at the MZ interferometer in Bob’s side, Bob has 1/2 probability to have correct basis choice. Both sides can then obtain sifted keys after comparison, which are used for further error correction, privacy amplification according to decoy state QKD mechanism. The classical communication channel is realized via a standard TCP/IP connection in our setup. Here, IM (PM): intensity (phase) modulator; BS: beam splitter; AT: controllable attenuator; SYN: synchronized signal; PC: polarization controller; PS: phase shifter; D: single-photon detector; PBS: polarizing beam splitter.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured specification for QKD network system

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured and derived specification for decoy state system

Equations (6)

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R q { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] } ,
Q 1 Q 1 L = μ 2 e μ μv v 2 ( Q v L e v Q μ e μ v 2 μ 2 Y 0 U μ 2 v 2 μ 2 ) ,
e 1 e 1 U = E μ Q μ Y 0 L e μ / 2 Q 1 L ,
Q v L = Q v ( 1 10 N v Q v ) ,
Y 0 L = Y 0 ( 1 10 N 0 Y 0 ) ,
Y 0 U = Y 0 ( 1 + 10 N 0 Y 0 ) ,

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