Abstract

The properties of backreflected light due to voids in a fiber fuse were studied using optical coherence-domain reflectometry of a damaged fiber and real-time monitoring of the electrical (RF) and optical frequency spectrum. Light reflected backward at the interface of a propagating fiber fuse acquired low-frequency broadband amplitude modulation, which can be detected remotely at the source end, using an RF spectrum analyzer. For the light backreflected during propagation of a fuse, we derived an analytical expression that well explained the spectral features observed experimentally in the RF spectrum. Finally, a novel method that allowed us to rapidly terminate the fuse propagation (in a few milliseconds) is also shown.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, "Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse," Opt. Lett. 13, 767-769 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).
  4. Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, "The fiber fuse phenomenon in polarization-maintaining fibers at 1.55 ?m," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.
  9. S.-I. Todoroki, "In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022-4024 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Wyatt, R. M. Percival and R. Kashyap, "Optical communication system and method of protecting an optical route," U.S.A. Patent 7,162161 (2007).
  13. K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, "Evaluation of high-power endurance of bend-insensitive fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.
  14. K. S. Abedin and T. Morioka, "Remote detection of fiber fuse propagation in optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.
  15. R. Kashyap, "High average power effects in optical fiber and devices," Proc. SPIE 4940, 108-117 (2003).
  16. R. M. Atkins, P. G. Simpkins, and A. D. Yablon, "Track of a fiber fuse: a Rayleigh instability in optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 974-976 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, and D. E. N. Davies, "Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: a new optical evolution technique," Opt. Lett. 12, 158-160 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Smith, "Optical coherence tomography: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976-988 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976-988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Todoroki, "In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022-4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Smith, "Optical coherence tomography: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, "Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse," Opt. Lett. 13, 767-769 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Asakawa, S.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

Birks, T. A.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Carr, S.

Chamorovsky, Y. K.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Churbanov, M. F.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. E. N.

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Digiovanni, D. J.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gh, A.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976-988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, "Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse," Opt. Lett. 13, 767-769 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, G. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, "High average power effects in optical fiber and devices," Proc. SPIE 4940, 108-117 (2003).

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

Nagase, R.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, Y.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sikora, E. S. R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simpkins, P. G.

Smith, J. M.

J. M. Smith, "Optical coherence tomography: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Snopatin, G. E.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Todoroki, S.-I.

S.-I. Todoroki, "In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022-4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vorobjev, I. L.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A. D.

Yanagi, S.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Youngquist, R. C.

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976-988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Smith, "Optical coherence tomography: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-I. Todoroki, "In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022-4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

R. Kashyap, "High average power effects in optical fiber and devices," Proc. SPIE 4940, 108-117 (2003).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, "The fiber fuse phenomenon in polarization-maintaining fibers at 1.55 ?m," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.

R. Wyatt, R. M. Percival and R. Kashyap, "Optical communication system and method of protecting an optical route," U.S.A. Patent 7,162161 (2007).

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, "Evaluation of high-power endurance of bend-insensitive fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

K. S. Abedin and T. Morioka, "Remote detection of fiber fuse propagation in optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.

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