Abstract

The properties of backreflected light due to voids in a fiber fuse were studied using optical coherence-domain reflectometry of a damaged fiber and real-time monitoring of the electrical (RF) spectrum. Light reflected backward at the interface of a propagating fiber fuse acquired low-frequency broadband amplitude modulation, which can be detected remotely at the source end, using an RF spectrum analyzer. For the light backreflected during propagation of a fiber fuse, we derived an analytical expression that well explained the spectral features observed experimentally in the RF spectrum. Finally, a novel method that allowed us to rapidly terminate the fiber fuse propagation (in a few milliseconds) is also shown.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, "Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse," Opt. Lett. 13, 767-769 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).
  4. Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, "The fiber fuse phenomenon in polarization-maintaining fibers at 1.55 ?m," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.
  9. S.-I. Todoroki, "In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022-4024 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Wyatt, R. M. Percival and R. Kashyap, "Optical communication system and method of protecting an optical route," U.S.A. Patent 7,162161 (2007).
  13. K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, "Evaluation of high-power endurance of bend-insensitive fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.
  14. K. S. Abedin and T. Morioka, "Remote detection of fiber fuse propagation in optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.
  15. R. Kashyap, "High average power effects in optical fiber and devices," Proc. SPIE 4940, 108-117 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. Atkins, P. G. Simpkins, and A. D. Yablon, "Track of a fiber fuse: a Rayleigh instability in optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 974-976 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, and D. E. N. Davies, "Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: a new optical evolution technique," Opt. Lett. 12, 158-160 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. M. Smith, "Optical coherence tomography: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976-988 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

S.-I. Todoroki, "In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022-4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976-988 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. M. Smith, "Optical coherence tomography: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, "Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse," Opt. Lett. 13, 767-769 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

Asakawa, S.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

Birks, T. A.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Carr, S.

Chamorovsky, Y. K.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churbanov, M. F.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. E. N.

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Digiovanni, D. J.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frolov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gh, A.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976-988 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hand, D. P.

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, "Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse," Opt. Lett. 13, 767-769 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, G. A.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, "High average power effects in optical fiber and devices," Proc. SPIE 4940, 108-117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashinsky, V. M.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

Nagase, R.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuto, Y.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sikora, E. S. R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simpkins, P. G.

Smith, J. M.

J. M. Smith, "Optical coherence tomography: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Snopatin, G. E.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todoroki, S.-I.

S.-I. Todoroki, "In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022-4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vorobjev, I. L.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A. D.

Yanagi, S.

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse phenomenon in triangular-profile single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 846-852 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Youngquist, R. C.

Br. J. Radiol.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Radiol. 78, 976-988 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

R. Kashyap and K. J. Blow, "Observation of catastrophic self-propelled self-focusing in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 47-49 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, V. M. Mashinsky, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and G. E. Snopatin, "Catastrophic destruction of fluoride and chalcogenide fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 783-784 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Percival, E. S. R. Sikora, and R. Wyatt, "Catastrophic damage and accelerated aging in bent fibers caused by high optical powers," Electron. Lett. 36, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, "Single mode tapers as fiber fuse damage circuit breakers," Electron. Lett. 25, 33-34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. M. Smith, "Optical coherence tomography: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. M. Dianov, I. A. Bufetov, A. A. Frolov, Y. K. Chamorovsky, G. A. Ivanov, and I. L. Vorobjev, "Fiber fuse effect in microstructured fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 180-181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, "Fiber fuse generation in single-mode fiber-optic connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 174-176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S.-I. Todoroki, "In-situ observation of fiber-fuse propagation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4022-4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

R. Kashyap, "High average power effects in optical fiber and devices," Proc. SPIE 4940, 108-117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, S. C. Mettler, and D. J. Digiovanni, "A comparative evaluation of fiber fuse models in laser-induced damage in optical materials," Proc. SPIE 2966, 592-606 (1997).

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Lee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Wyatt, R. M. Percival and R. Kashyap, "Optical communication system and method of protecting an optical route," U.S.A. Patent 7,162161 (2007).

K. Takenaga, S. Omori, R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Himeno, "Evaluation of high-power endurance of bend-insensitive fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JWA11.

K. S. Abedin and T. Morioka, "Remote detection of fiber fuse propagation in optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD5.

M. M. Lee, J. M. Roth, T. G. Ulmer, and C. V. Cryan, "The fiber fuse phenomenon in polarization-maintaining fibers at 1.55 ?m," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JWB66.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscope images of the damage caused by the fiber fuse effect in two single-mode optical fibers (SMF-28). The photographs were taken after halting the fiber fuse propagation by rapid termination of the high-power amplifier. Differences in the shape of the leading void can be seen in these photographs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used for OCDR of the SMF-28 fiber damaged by the fiber fuse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The A-scan showing the fringe amplitude plotted as a function of the reference mirror position. Strong backreflection results from the voids within a length of a few hundred micrometers of the fused core.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The electrical spectrum of the back-reflected light (a) before fiber fuse initiation, and (b) following initiation of the fiber fuse. The optical power was 2.75 W. Span is 1MHz

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured RF frequency components as a function of harmonic number.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic diagram of the device that detects propagation of the fiber fuse. The output voltage signal changes from ‘low’ to ‘high’ when the fiber fuse occurs. Inset shows a photograph of the core of the damaged fiber.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The output voltage response of the electrical power senor to the fiber fuse. The voltage changed from ‘Low’ to ‘High’ in about 5 ms.

Equations (3)

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E m ( t ) = i = 1 N a i exp [ j ω o ( t τ i ) + j 2 ω o n v F t / c ] + a r exp [ j ω o ( t t r ) ] ,
E m ( t ) . E m * ( t ) = a r 2 + i = 1 N a i 2 ( t ) + 2 a r i = 1 N a i ( t ) cos [ ω o ( 2 n v F t / c + t r τ i ) ] +
+ i = 1 N ( j > i ) N a i ( t ) a j ( t ) cos [ ω o ( τ i τ j ) ]

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