Abstract

We provide, for the first time to our knowledge, an analysis of the influence of nonlinear photon mixing on the end to end quantum bit error rate (QBER) performance of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems. The results show that negligible impact is to be expected for modulation indexes in the range of 2%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Wiesner, "Conjugate coding," SIGACT News 15, 77-88 (1983).
  2. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, " Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing" in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, 1984 IEEE, New York, 175-179 (1984).
  3. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, "A single quantum cannot be cloned," Nature London,  299, 802-803 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, "Single-photon interference in a 10 Km long optical fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 29, 634-635 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow and S. Cova, "Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical Networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1876 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. D. Townsend, "Quantum Cryptography on Optical fiber networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345-370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Curty, K. Tamaki and T. Moroder, "Effect of detector dead times on the security evaluation of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against sequential attacks," Phys Rev. A,  77,052321 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Single-photon interference in Sidebands of Phase-Modulated Light for Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656-1659 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, "Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 24, 104-106 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Capmany and D. Novak, "Microwave Photonics combines two worlds," Nat. Photonics 1, 319-330 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-721(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Bloch, S. McLaughlin, J.M. Merolla and F. Patois, "Frequency-coded quantum key distribution," Opt. Lett. 32, 301-303 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. C. Gerry and P. L. Knight, Introductory Quantum Optics, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005).
  21. N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61,052304 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Curty, K. Tamaki and T. Moroder, "Effect of detector dead times on the security evaluation of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against sequential attacks," Phys Rev. A,  77,052321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-721(2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61,052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Single-photon interference in Sidebands of Phase-Modulated Light for Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656-1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, "Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 24, 104-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. D. Townsend, "Quantum Cryptography on Optical fiber networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow and S. Cova, "Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical Networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1876 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, "Single-photon interference in a 10 Km long optical fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 29, 634-635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. Wiesner, "Conjugate coding," SIGACT News 15, 77-88 (1983).

1982 (1)

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, "A single quantum cannot be cloned," Nature London,  299, 802-803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, M.

Blow, K. J.

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow and S. Cova, "Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical Networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1876 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Cova, S.

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow and S. Cova, "Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical Networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1876 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Curty, M.

M. Curty, K. Tamaki and T. Moroder, "Effect of detector dead times on the security evaluation of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against sequential attacks," Phys Rev. A,  77,052321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duraffourg, L.

J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J. P.

O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, "Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 24, 104-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Single-photon interference in Sidebands of Phase-Modulated Light for Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656-1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guerreau, O.

O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langrock, C.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lütkenhaus, N.

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61,052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malassenet, F. J.

O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazurenko, Y.

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, "Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 24, 104-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Single-photon interference in Sidebands of Phase-Modulated Light for Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656-1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, S.

Merolla, J.M.

Mérolla, J-M.

O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Single-photon interference in Sidebands of Phase-Modulated Light for Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656-1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, "Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 24, 104-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moroder, T.

M. Curty, K. Tamaki and T. Moroder, "Effect of detector dead times on the security evaluation of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against sequential attacks," Phys Rev. A,  77,052321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, "Microwave Photonics combines two worlds," Nat. Photonics 1, 319-330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

Pastor, D.

Patois, F.

M. Bloch, S. McLaughlin, J.M. Merolla and F. Patois, "Frequency-coded quantum key distribution," Opt. Lett. 32, 301-303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phoenix, D. J. D.

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow and S. Cova, "Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical Networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1876 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Porte, H.

Rarity, J. G.

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, "Single-photon interference in a 10 Km long optical fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 29, 634-635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W. T.

J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, H. Porte, and W. T. Rhodes, "Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 24, 104-106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Single-photon interference in Sidebands of Phase-Modulated Light for Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656-1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soujaeff, A.

O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

M. Curty, K. Tamaki and T. Moroder, "Effect of detector dead times on the security evaluation of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against sequential attacks," Phys Rev. A,  77,052321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, "Single-photon interference in a 10 Km long optical fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 29, 634-635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, "Quantum Cryptography on Optical fiber networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow and S. Cova, "Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical Networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1876 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, "Single-photon interference in a 10 Km long optical fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 29, 634-635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesner, S.

S. Wiesner, "Conjugate coding," SIGACT News 15, 77-88 (1983).

Wootters, W. K.

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, "A single quantum cannot be cloned," Nature London,  299, 802-803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zbiden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zurek, W. H.

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, "A single quantum cannot be cloned," Nature London,  299, 802-803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, "Single-photon interference in a 10 Km long optical fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 29, 634-635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, D. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow and S. Cova, "Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical Networks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1875-1876 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J-M. Mérolla, L. Duraffourg, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, and W. T. Rhodes, "Integrated quantum key distribution system using single sideband detection," Eur. Phys. J. D 18, 141-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. Guerreau, J-M. Mérolla, A. Soujaeff, F. Patois, J. P. Goedgebuer, and F. J. Malassenet, "Long distance QKD transmission using single-sideband detection scheme with WDM synchronization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1533-1540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryptology (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, "Microwave Photonics combines two worlds," Nat. Photonics 1, 319-330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature London (1)

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, "A single quantum cannot be cloned," Nature London,  299, 802-803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

P. D. Townsend, "Quantum Cryptography on Optical fiber networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 345-370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys Rev. A (1)

M. Curty, K. Tamaki and T. Moroder, "Effect of detector dead times on the security evaluation of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against sequential attacks," Phys Rev. A,  77,052321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61,052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J-M. Mérolla, Y. Mazurenko, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Single-photon interference in Sidebands of Phase-Modulated Light for Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656-1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbiden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

SIGACT News (1)

S. Wiesner, "Conjugate coding," SIGACT News 15, 77-88 (1983).

Other (2)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, " Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing" in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, 1984 IEEE, New York, 175-179 (1984).

C. C. Gerry and P. L. Knight, Introductory Quantum Optics, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SCM_QKD system Layout [20]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Frequency spectrum, number of second harmonic distortion, frequency sum and difference intermodulation terms, and overall CSO number NCSOi) for a frequency plan composed of 15 evenly spaced channels spanning from 2 to 30 GHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

QBER values versus the optical fiber link length in Km, obtained for the three frequency plan (N=15,N=30 and N=50) systems and for the case of a frequency coded (N=1) system. 3.a) m=2%, 3.b) m=8%

Equations (21)

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P = ρ ψ E ( t ) E + ( t ) ψ
E + ( t ) = j w ξ ( w ) a w e jwt
E ( t ) = j w ξ ( w ) a w + e jwt
ξ ( w ) = ħ w 2 ε 0 V 0
ψ A = ( 1 + e j Ψ 1 ) α w o j e j Φ 1 N e j Ψ 1 α w o Ω N j e j Φ 1 N 1 e j Ψ 1 α w o Ω N 1
j e j Φ 11 e j Ψ 1 α w o Ω 1 j e j Φ 11 e j Ψ 1 α w o + Ω 1
j e j Φ 1 N 1 e j Ψ 1 α w o + Ω N 1 j e j Φ 1 N e j Ψ 1 α w 0 + Ω N
ψ B = ( 1 + e j Ψ 1 ) ( 1 + e j Ψ 2 ) α w o j { ( 1 + e j Ψ 1 ) e j Ψ 2 e j Φ 2 i + ( 1 + e j Ψ 2 ) e j Ψ 1 e j Φ 1 i e jD ( Ω i ) } α w o Ω i
j { ( 1 + e j Ψ 1 ) e j Ψ 2 e j Φ 2 i + ( 1 + e j Ψ 2 ) e j Ψ 1 e j Φ 1 i e jD ( Ω i ) } α w o + Ω i
e j ( Ψ 1 + Ψ 2 ) e jD ( Ω l ) e j ( Φ 1 l + Φ 2 k ) α w o Ω l Ω k e j ( Ψ 1 + Ψ 2 ) e jD ( Ω l ) e j ( Φ 1 l Φ 2 k ) α w o Ω l + Ω k
e j ( Ψ 1 + Ψ 2 ) e jD ( Ω l ) e j ( Φ 1 l Φ 2 k ) α w o + Ω l Ω k e j ( Ψ 1 + Ψ 2 ) e jD ( Ω l ) e j ( Φ 1 l + Φ 2 k ) α w o + Ω l + Ω k
D ( Ω i ) = β 1 L Ω i + β 2 L 2 Ω i 2
α w o + Ω l Ω k = m 2 α w o + Ω i
ψ + Ω i = 0 0 0 0 0 c w o + Ω i α w o + Ω i
c w o + Ω i = [ j { ( 1 + e j Ψ 1 ) e j Ψ 2 e j Φ 2 i + + ( 1 + e j Ψ 2 ) e j Ψ 1 e j Φ 1 i e jD ( Ω i ) } m 2 e j ( Ψ 1 + Ψ 2 ) { e jD ( Ω l ) e j ( Φ 1 l Φ 2 k ) + Ω k k , l Ω l = Ω i + e jD ( Ω r ) e j ( Φ 1 r + Φ 2 s ) Ω r r , s + Ω s = Ω i } ]
ψ Ω i = 0 0 0 0 0 c w o Ω i α w o Ω i
c w o Ω i = [ j { ( 1 + e j Ψ 1 ) e j Ψ 2 e j Φ 2 i + + ( 1 + e j Ψ 2 ) e j Ψ 1 e j Φ 1 i e jD ( Ω i ) } m 2 e j ( Ψ 1 + Ψ 2 ) { e jD ( Ω l ) e j ( Φ 1 l Φ 2 k ) + Ω k k , l + Ω l = Ω i + e jD ( Ω r ) e j ( Φ 1 r + Φ 2 s ) Ω r r , s Ω s = Ω i } ]
P ± Ω i = c w o ± Ω i 2 ρ ξ 2 ( w 0 ± Ω i ) n w o ± Ω i
n w o ± Ω i = α w o ± Ω i a + a α w o ± Ω i
QBER ( Ω i ) = { ( 1 V ) + ( 1 QCNR CSO i ) } ρ T L μ ¯ i + d B 2 [ { 1 + ( 1 QCNR CSO i ) } ρ T L μ ¯ i + d B ]
QCNR CSO i = 16 m 2 N CSO ( Ω i )

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