Abstract

Here we report on an extension of common Z-scan method to arbitrary polarized incidence light for measurements of anisotropic third-order nonlinear susceptibility in isotropic medium. The normalized transmittance formulas of closed-aperture Z-scan are obtained for linearly, elliptically and circularly polarized incidence beam. The theoretical analysis is examined experimentally by studying third-order nonlinear susceptibility of CS2 liquid. Results show that the elliptically polarized light Z-scan method can be used to measure simultaneously the two third-order nonlinear susceptibility components χxyyx (3) and χxxyy (3). Furthermore, the elliptically polarized light Z-scan measurements of large nonlinear phase shift are also analyzed theoretically and experimentally.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Fuks-Janczarek, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, and J. Berdowski, "Electronic and nuclear contributions to the third-order optical susceptibility," Opt. Commun. 236, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Kiyohara, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, "Orientational and collision-induced contribution to third-order nonlinear optical response of liquid CS2," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Volle, V. Boucher, K. D. Dorkenoo, R. Chevalier and X. N. Phu, "Local polarization state observation and third-order nonlinear susceptibility measurements by self-induced polarization state changes method," Opt. Commun. 182, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Intensity-dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507-509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berdowski, J.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, and J. Berdowski, "Electronic and nuclear contributions to the third-order optical susceptibility," Opt. Commun. 236, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, V.

R. Volle, V. Boucher, K. D. Dorkenoo, R. Chevalier and X. N. Phu, "Local polarization state observation and third-order nonlinear susceptibility measurements by self-induced polarization state changes method," Opt. Commun. 182, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boudebs, G.

Bourdin, J. P.

Boyd, R.

Bridges, R.

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Straromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, ‘‘Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,’’J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, S. Q.

Chevalier, R.

R. Volle, V. Boucher, K. D. Dorkenoo, R. Chevalier and X. N. Phu, "Local polarization state observation and third-order nonlinear susceptibility measurements by self-induced polarization state changes method," Opt. Commun. 182, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chis, M.

de Araújo, C.B.

de Melo, C. P.

Demenicis, L.

DeSalvo, J.R.

DeSalvo, R.

Ding, J.

Dorkenoo, K. D.

R. Volle, V. Boucher, K. D. Dorkenoo, R. Chevalier and X. N. Phu, "Local polarization state observation and third-order nonlinear susceptibility measurements by self-induced polarization state changes method," Opt. Commun. 182, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, C. G.

Fan, Y.

Fischer, G.

Fuks-Janczarek, I.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, and J. Berdowski, "Electronic and nuclear contributions to the third-order optical susceptibility," Opt. Commun. 236, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R.A.

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

Gu, B.

Hagan, D. J.

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Straromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, ‘‘Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,’’J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hermann and R. G. McDuff, "Analysis of spatial scanning with thick optically nonlinear media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2056-2064 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishizawa, N.

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, K.

K. Kiyohara, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, "Orientational and collision-induced contribution to third-order nonlinear optical response of liquid CS2," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kityk, I. V.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, and J. Berdowski, "Electronic and nuclear contributions to the third-order optical susceptibility," Opt. Commun. 236, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiyohara, K.

K. Kiyohara, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, "Orientational and collision-induced contribution to third-order nonlinear optical response of liquid CS2," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lefkir, M.

Liang, J.

J. Liang, H. Zhao, and X. Zhou, "Polarization-dependence effects of refractive index change associated with photoisomerization investigated with Z-scan technique," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. L.

Liu, Z. B.

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Intensity-dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507-509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R. G.

P. B. Chapple, J. Straromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, ‘‘Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,’’J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hermann and R. G. McDuff, "Analysis of spatial scanning with thick optically nonlinear media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2056-2064 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mckay, T. J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Straromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, ‘‘Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,’’J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morita, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

K. Kiyohara, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, "Orientational and collision-induced contribution to third-order nonlinear optical response of liquid CS2," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Zhao and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Z-scan measurements of ?3 using top-hat beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 673-675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D. V.

Phu, X. N.

R. Volle, V. Boucher, K. D. Dorkenoo, R. Chevalier and X. N. Phu, "Local polarization state observation and third-order nonlinear susceptibility measurements by self-induced polarization state changes method," Opt. Commun. 182, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, G.

Ryasnyansky, A. I

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A.I.

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sahraoui, B.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, and J. Berdowski, "Electronic and nuclear contributions to the third-order optical susceptibility," Opt. Commun. 236, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Sakakibara, S.

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Intensity-dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507-509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Song, F.

Souto-Maior, R.

Straromlynska, J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Straromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, ‘‘Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,’’J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, and C. M. Savage, "Intensity-dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507-509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

Turu, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Volle, R.

R. Volle, V. Boucher, K. D. Dorkenoo, R. Chevalier and X. N. Phu, "Local polarization state observation and third-order nonlinear susceptibility measurements by self-induced polarization state changes method," Opt. Commun. 182, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

Yan, X. Q.

Zang, W. P.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, C. P.

Zhang, C. Z.

Zhang, G. Y.

Zhao, H.

J. Liang, H. Zhao, and X. Zhou, "Polarization-dependence effects of refractive index change associated with photoisomerization investigated with Z-scan technique," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Z-scan measurements of ?3 using top-hat beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 673-675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. Y.

Zhou, X.

J. Liang, H. Zhao, and X. Zhou, "Polarization-dependence effects of refractive index change associated with photoisomerization investigated with Z-scan technique," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R.A. Ganeev, A.I. Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, "Nonlinear refraction in CS2," Appl. Phys. B 78, 433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Zhao and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Z-scan measurements of ?3 using top-hat beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 673-675 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Liang, H. Zhao, and X. Zhou, "Polarization-dependence effects of refractive index change associated with photoisomerization investigated with Z-scan technique," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

K. Kiyohara, K. Kamada, and K. Ohta, "Orientational and collision-induced contribution to third-order nonlinear optical response of liquid CS2," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6338 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

P. B. Chapple, J. Straromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. Mckay, and R. G. McDuff, ‘‘Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,’’J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Morita, A. I Ryasnyansky, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, and H. Kuroda, "Fifth-order optical nonlinearity of pseudoisocyanine solution at 529 nm," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 282-287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (8)

J. A. Hermann and R. G. McDuff, "Analysis of spatial scanning with thick optically nonlinear media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2056-2064 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time-Resolved Z-Scan Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Chen, Z. B. Liu, W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, W. Y. Zhou, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics for a large nonlinear phase shift," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1911 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, J. Chen, Y. Fan, J. Ding, and H. Wang, "Theory of Gaussian beam Z scan with simultaneous third- and fifth-order nonlinear refraction based on a Gaussian decomposition method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2651-2659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. L. Liu, B. Zhang, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, and C. P. Zhang, "Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of carbon disulfide in a short-wavelength region," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, M. Chis, and J. P. Bourdin, "Third-order susceptibility measurements by nonlinear image processing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1450-1456 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Demenicis, A. S. L. Gomes, D. V. Petrov, C.B. de Araújo, C. P. de Melo, C. G. dos Santos, and R. Souto-Maior, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear-optical susceptibility of poly(3-hexadecylthiophene)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Lefkir and G. Rivoire, "Influence of transverse effects on measurement of third-order nonlinear susceptibility by self-induced polarization state changes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2856-2864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Volle, V. Boucher, K. D. Dorkenoo, R. Chevalier and X. N. Phu, "Local polarization state observation and third-order nonlinear susceptibility measurements by self-induced polarization state changes method," Opt. Commun. 182, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Fuks-Janczarek, B. Sahraoui, I. V. Kityk, and J. Berdowski, "Electronic and nuclear contributions to the third-order optical susceptibility," Opt. Commun. 236, 159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed., (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003).

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Z-scan Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities," in Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials, M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, eds., (Marcel Dekker, Inc.,1998), page 655-692.

S. J. Wagner, J. Meier, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, D. Modotto, M. Sorel, and D. C. Hutchings, "Polarization-Dependent Nonlinear Refraction in GaAs/AlAs Superlattice Waveguides," in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper FWE2.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Second Edition); (Marcel Dekker: New York, 2003).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CS2

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental arrangements for polarization changeable Z-scan

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized transmittance curves for linearly, circularly and elliptically polarized (φ 1=78deg) incidence beams.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized transmittance curves for different peak on-axis radiation intensities: (a) 4.26, (b) 7.93, (c) 12.13, (d) 17.59, (e) 20.02, (f) 24.83 GW/cm2 . The polarizer angle φ 1 is 78 deg. Owing to the blue line covers the red dashed line we can not watch red lines in (a) and (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Peak-to-valley transmittance difference (a) and B value used in above fits (b) as a function of peak on-axis radiation intensity.

Equations (33)

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E ( z , r , t ) = E 0 ( t ) w 0 w z exp ( r 2 w z 2 r 2 2 R ( z ) ( z , t ) ) .
E ( z , r , t ) = ( E 0 ( t ) cos φ 1 x ̂ + E 0 ( t ) sin φ 1 e i δ 1 y ̂ ) w 0 w z exp ( r 2 w z 2 i κ r 2 2 R ( z ) ( z , t ) ) ,
E ( z , r , t ) = E + ( z , r , t ) σ ̂ + + E ( z , r , t ) ) σ ̂
= ( E + , 0 ( t ) σ ̂ + + E , 0 ( t ) σ ̂ ) w 0 w z exp ( r 2 w z 2 i π r 2 λR ( z ) ( z , t ) ) ,
{ E + , 0 ( t ) = E 0 ( t ) ( cos φ 1 i e i δ 1 sin φ 1 ) / 2 E , 0 ( t ) = E 0 ( t ) ( cos φ 1 + i e i δ 1 sin φ 1 ) / 2 .
n ± = n 0 + 2 π n 0 [ A E ± 2 + ( A + B ) E 2 ] ,
n ± ( z , r , t ) = n 0 + Δ n ± = n 0 + 2 π n 0 [ A + 1 ± sin δ 1 sin 2 φ 1 2 B ] E ( z , r , t ) 2 .
{ d Δϕ dz' = κ Δ n ( I ) , dl dz' = α ( I ) I
{ Δ ϕ + ( z , r , t ) = Δ ϕ + , 0 ( z , t ) exp ( 2 r 2 w z 2 ) , Δ ϕ ( z , r , t ) = Δ ϕ , 0 ( z , t ) exp ( 2 r 2 w z 2 )
Δ ϕ ± , 0 ( z , t ) = Δ ϕ ± , 0 ( t ) / ( 1 + z 2 / z 0 2 ) .
Δ ϕ ± , 0 ( t ) = κ Δ n ± , 0 ( t ) L eff .
E e ( z , r , t ) = E e , + ( z , r , t ) σ ̂ + + E e , ( z , r , t ) σ ̂
= E + ( z , r , t ) e αL / 2 e i Δ ϕ + ( z , r , t ) σ ̂ + + E ( z , r , t ) e αL / 2 e i Δ ϕ ( z , r , t ) σ ̂ .
e i Δ ϕ ± ( z , r , t ) = m = 0 [ i Δ ϕ ± , 0 ( z , t ) ] m m ! exp ( 2 m r 2 w z 2 ) .
E a ( r , t ) = E a , + ( r , t ) σ ̂ + + E a , ( r , t ) σ ̂
= E + ( z , r = 0 , t ) e αL / 2 m = 0 [ i Δ ϕ + , 0 ( z , t ) ] m m ! w m 0 w m exp ( r 2 w m 2 r 2 2 R m + i θ m ) σ ̂ +
+ E ( z , r = 0 , t ) e αL / 2 m = 0 [ i Δ ϕ , 0 ( z , t ) ] m m ! w m 0 w m exp ( r 2 w m 2 r 2 2 R m + i θ m ) σ ̂
w m 0 2 = w z 1 / ( 2 m + 1 )
d m = k w m 0 2 / 2
R m = d ( 1 g g 2 + d 2 / d m 2 ) 1
θ m = tan 1 ( d / d m g )
w m 2 = w m 0 2 ( g 2 + d 2 / d m 2 )
T ( r a , z , t ) = dt 0 r a E a ( r , t ) 2 rdr S dt 0 E a ( r , t , Δ ϕ ±,0 = 0 ) 2 rdr ,
T = 1 S m = 0 n = 0 1 ( m + n + 1 ) G mn { cos ( c mn π 2 ) e b mn Y a 2 · cos ( c mn π 2 + d mn Y a 2 ) }
G mn = 1 sin δ 1 sin 2 φ 1 2 [ Δ ϕ + , 0 ( z , t ) ] m + n m ! n ! + 1 sin δ 1 sin 2 φ 1 2 [ Δ ϕ , 0 ( z , t ) ] m + n m ! n !
b mn = ( 1 + x 2 ) [ 2 m + 1 x 2 + ( 2 m + 1 ) 2 + 2 n + 1 x 2 + ( 2 n + 1 ) 2 ]
d mn = 4 x ( 1 + x 2 ) ( m n ) ( m + n + 1 ) [ x 2 + ( 2 m + 1 ) 2 ] [ x 2 + ( 2 n + 1 ) 2 ]
c mn = m n
S = 1 exp ( 2 Y a 2 )
T CA = 1 2 m = 0 n = 0 G mn ( m + n + 1 ) { b mn cos ( c mn π 2 ) + d mn sin ( c mn π 2 ) } .
T CA = 1 + 4 x ( x 2 + 1 ) ( x 2 + 9 ) [ 1 sin δ 1 sin 2 φ 1 2 Δ ϕ + , 0 ( t ) + 1 + sin δ 1 sin 2 φ 1 2 Δ ϕ , 0 ( t ) ]
= 1 + 4 x ( x 2 + 1 ) ( x 2 + 9 ) Δ ϕ eff
Δ n ± , 0 ( t ) = Δ n ± , 0 / 2

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