Abstract

We present, design and analyze a novel planar Left-Handed (LH) metamaterial at microwave frequencies. This metamaterial is composed of only metallic cut wires and is used under normal-to-plane incidence. Using Finite Element Method (FEM) based simulations and microwave experiments, we have investigated the material properties of the structure. Simultaneous negative values are observed for the permittivity e and permeability μ by the inversion method from the transmission and reflection responses. A negative index n is verified in a bulk prism engineered by stacking several layers of the metamaterial. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of a LH metamaterial composed of only cut wires.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes and negative refraction in metal nanowire composites," Opt. Express 11, 735-745 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Zhou, E. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  15. A. M. Nicolson, and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19, 377-382 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K.  Aydin, I.  Bulu, and E.  Ozbay, "Focusing of electromagnetic waves by a left-handed metamaterial flat lens," Opt. Express  13, 8753-8759 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Wang, J. R. Fang, and X. T. Dong, "Refocusing of backscattered microwaves in target detection by using LHM flat lens," Opt. Express 15, 3312-3317 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R.W. Ziolkowski, and A. Kipple, "Application of double negative metamaterials to increase the power radiated by electrically small antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2626-2640 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. N. Burokur, M. Latrach, and S. Toutain, "Theoretical investigation of a circular patch antenna in the presence of a left-handed medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 4, 183-186 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, J. R. Fang, and X. T. Dong, "Refocusing of backscattered microwaves in target detection by using LHM flat lens," Opt. Express 15, 3312-3317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. Zhou, E. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2004 (1)

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

R.W. Ziolkowski, and A. Kipple, "Application of double negative metamaterials to increase the power radiated by electrically small antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2626-2640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes and negative refraction in metal nanowire composites," Opt. Express 11, 735-745 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

A. M. Nicolson, and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19, 377-382 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulu, I.

Burokur, S. N.

S. N. Burokur, M. Latrach, and S. Toutain, "Theoretical investigation of a circular patch antenna in the presence of a left-handed medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 4, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Dolling, G.

Dong, X. T.

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E.

Economou, E. N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

Fang, J. R.

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huangfu, J.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsarakis, N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kipple, A.

R.W. Ziolkowski, and A. Kipple, "Application of double negative metamaterials to increase the power radiated by electrically small antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2626-2640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, E. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Latrach, M.

S. N. Burokur, M. Latrach, and S. Toutain, "Theoretical investigation of a circular patch antenna in the presence of a left-handed medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 4, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolson, A. M.

A. M. Nicolson, and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19, 377-382 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

Ran, L.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ross, G. F.

A. M. Nicolson, and G. F. Ross, "Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19, 377-382 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, E. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toutain, S.

S. N. Burokur, M. Latrach, and S. Toutain, "Theoretical investigation of a circular patch antenna in the presence of a left-handed medium," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. 4, 183-186 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, "Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Wegener, M.

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators," Phys. Rev. E 70, 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, E. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Unifying approach to left-handed material design," Opt. Lett. 31, 3620-3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

Ziolkowski, R.W.

R.W. Ziolkowski, and A. Kipple, "Application of double negative metamaterials to increase the power radiated by electrically small antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2626-2640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Unit cell of: (a) cut-continuous wires structure, (b) fishnet structure, and (c) only cut wires structure under normal-to-plane propagation (ax = 9.5 mm, ay = 19 mm, w = 0.3 mm, l = 9.5 mm). The inserts show the direction and the polarization of the wave.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated and measured reflection (S 11) and transmission (S 21) responses of the metamaterial for a single layer: (a) magnitude, and (b) phase.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Extracted electromagnetic properties of the cut wires metamaterial using the simulated and experimental data of Fig. 2: (a)-(c) real parts, and (d)-(f) imaginary parts of the permittivity ε, of the permeability μ and the refraction index n. The shaded yellow area delineates the frequency region where the measured real parts of ε and μ are simultaneously negative.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) A bulk metamaterial composed of four layers interleaved with 1 mm air spacing, and (b) transmission spectra for different number of layers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Extracted material properties for different number of layers. (a) Re(ε), (b) Re(μ), and (c) Re(n).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Different air spacing for the two layers case. (a) S 21 (dB), and (b) Re(ε), Re(μ), and Re(n). The colored dashed regions highlight the frequency region where Re(ε) and Re(μ) are simultaneously negative for each case.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Experimental setup for the refraction experiment. The inset shows a side view of the fabricated prism shaped metamaterial. (b) Refractive index n obtained by the refraction experiment.

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