Abstract

We report a telecom-band single-photon detector for gigahertz clocked quantum key distribution systems. The single-photon detector is based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The gate repetition frequency of the single-photon detector reached 1.5 GHz. A quantum efficiency of 10.8 % at 1550 nm was obtained with a dark count probability per gate of 6.3×10-7 and an afterpulsing probability of 2.8 %. Moreover, the maximum detection rate of the detector is 20 MHz.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3-28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, "Quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606-3608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1992

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bennet, C. H.

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fujii, G.

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, "Quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play system," New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goltsman, G. N.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play system," New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Habif, J. L.

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, "Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, "Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, G. Fujii, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and S. Inoue, "Quantum key distribution using single-photon detectors based on a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

Kaji, R.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606-3608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kardynal, B. E.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kouminov, P.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Lo, W.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makino, Y.

Matvienko, V.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mori, S.

Nakamura, K.

Nam, S. W.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, "Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Namekata, N.

Pearlman, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play system," New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sasamori, S.

Schlafer, J.

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, "Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwall, R. E.

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, "Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slysz, W.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennet, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptology 5, 3-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play system," New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

Tsuchida, H.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606-3608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verevkin, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

Wilsher, K.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Yoshizawa, A.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606-3608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, "Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial In-GaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: Current performance," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381-1398 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play system," New J. Phys. 4, 41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sinusoidally gated avalanche photodiode. (a) Diagram of the single-photon detection circuit. SG: signal generator, HP-AMP: 1 W class high-power amplifier, BPF: bandpass-filter, GPQC: Gated passive quenching circuit, BEF: Band-elimination filter, B-AMP: 3 GHz broadband inverting amplifier, LPF: low-pass-filter, CMP: comparator (discriminator). Oscilloscope trace of LPF outputs are shown in (b) and (c) (fast time-scale). In (b), the black line shows the signal when the avalanche occurred, and the gray line (30 mV offset is given) shows the signal without avalanche. The dotted line denotes the threshold voltage that is controlled by the offset voltage for the CMP.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the time histogram measurements. The illuminated gates are highlighted. Histogram (a) and (b) show the time histograms of the detection events when the laser was switched on and off, respectively. CI and CNI denote the number of events in the illuminated and nonilluminated gates, respectively, with the laser switched on. CD denotes the number of events per gate with the laser switched off.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Relation between the detection rate and the laser pulse delay. (b) Time histogram of detection events. The red and blue lines show the histograms when the laser was switched on and off, respectively. The highlighted profile shows the expected jitter distribution. The inset shows the histogram in linear scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dark count probability per gate Pd and afterpulsing probability Pa as functions of the quantum efficiency η. The closed and open circles show the relationship between Pd and η at 1.2 and 1.5 GHz, respectively. The closed and open squares show the relationship between Pa and η at 1.2 and 1.5 GHz, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of the sinusoidally gated APD with the other reported high speed single-photon detectors. ωg : gating repetition frequency or acceptable clock speed, R max: maximum detection rate.

Equations (4)

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P a = ( C NI C D ) R C I C NI ,
R = ω g ω L ,
μη N s ~ C I C NI ,
P d N s = C D ,

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