Abstract

Individual nanoparticles in aqueous solution are observed to be attracted to and orbit within the evanescent sensing ring of a Whispering Gallery Mode micro-sensor with only microwatts of driving power. This Carousel trap, caused by attractive optical gradient forces, interfacial interactions, and the circulating momentum flux, considerably enhances the rate of transport to the sensing region, thereby overcoming limitations posed by diffusion on such small area detectors. Resonance frequency fluctuations, caused by the radial Brownian motion of the nanoparticle, reveal the radial trapping potential and the nanoparticle size. Since the attractive forces draw particles to the highest evanescent intensity at the surface, binding steps are found to be uniform.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457,71-75 (2009)
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, "Single Virus Detection from the Reactive Shift of a Whispering-Gallery Mode," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105,20701-20704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, "Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules," Nature Methods 5, 591-596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, "Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors," Nature Biotechnol. 26, 417-426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Viruses and Bacteria," Science 235,1517-1520 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Amato-Grill, J.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, "Single Virus Detection from the Reactive Shift of a Whispering-Gallery Mode," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105,20701-20704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, "Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules," Nature Methods 5, 591-596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, "Theory of resonance shifts in TE and TM whispering gallery modes by nonradial perturbations for sensing applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23,1381-1389 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, "Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption," Opt. Lett. 28,272-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Birks, T. A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Carmon, T.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Chung, G.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Erickson, D.

H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457,71-75 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holler, S.

Jacques, F.

Keng, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, "Single Virus Detection from the Reactive Shift of a Whispering-Gallery Mode," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105,20701-20704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

Klug, M.

H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457,71-75 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457,71-75 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Manalis, S. R.

T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, "Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors," Nature Biotechnol. 26, 417-426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Messinger, R. J.

T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, "Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors," Nature Biotechnol. 26, 417-426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moore, S. D.

H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457,71-75 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Roichman, Y.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457,71-75 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Squires, T. M.

T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, "Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors," Nature Biotechnol. 26, 417-426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, "Single Virus Detection from the Reactive Shift of a Whispering-Gallery Mode," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105,20701-20704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, "Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules," Nature Methods 5, 591-596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, "Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption," Opt. Lett. 28,272-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. J.

H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457,71-75 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Yang, T. Carmon, B. Min, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Erbium-doped and Raman microlasers on a silicon chip fabricated by the sol-gel process," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, "Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides," Nature 457,71-75 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Nature Biotechnol. (1)

T. M. Squires, R. J. Messinger, and S. R. Manalis, "Making it stick: convection, reaction and diffusion in surface-based biosensors," Nature Biotechnol. 26, 417-426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, "Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules," Nature Methods 5, 591-596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, Y. Roichman, J. Amato-Grill, and D. G. Grier, "Optical forces arising from phase gradients," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, "Single Virus Detection from the Reactive Shift of a Whispering-Gallery Mode," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105,20701-20704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Viruses and Bacteria," Science 235,1517-1520 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, "Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities," Science 317, 783-787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. N. Izraelachvili, Intermolecular And Surfaces Forces. 173-191 (Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, 1987).

L ? (?/4?)(ns2-nm2)-1/2, D = 2nm2 (2ns)1/2(nnp2 - nm2)/(ns2 - nm2)(nnp2 + 2nm2), where ns, nm, and nnp are the refractive indices of the microsphere (1.45), aqueous medium (1.33), and nanoparticle (1.5 for virus and 1.59 for polystyrene; D = 1.50 and 2.26 respectively).

The translation from a size to a mass spectrum requires knowledge of mass density.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3087 KB)     

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