Abstract

Relativistically-intense laser beam with large field gradient (“laser gate”) enables strong inelastic scattering of electrons crossing the beam. This process allows for multi-MeV electron net acceleration per pass within the wavelength space. Inelastic scattering even in low-gradient laser field may also induce extremely tight temporal focusing and electron bunch formation down to quantum, zepto-second limit.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R-S. Harvie, "Charged particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187-1187 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 7, 168-169 (1958).
  3. T. W. B. Kibble, "Refraction of electron beams by intense electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054-1056 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. V. Fedorov, "Stimulated scattering of electrons by photons and adiabatic switching on hypothesis," Opt. Commun. 12, 205-209 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. E. Kaplan and A. L. Pokrovsky, "Fully relativistic theory of the ponderomotive force in an ultraintense standing wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053601(1-4) (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. L. Pokrovsky and A. E. Kaplan, "Relativistic reversal of the ponde.romotive force in a standing laser wave," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043401(1-12) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth C, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431, 538-541 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. Hogan, C. D. Barnes, and C. F. Clayton, "Multi-GeV energy gain in a plasma-wakefield accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 054802(1-4) (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Shvets, "Beat-Wave Excitation of Plasma Waves Based on Relativistic Bistability,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 195004(1-4) (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. We neglect here the "radiation friction" force on electron; this was supported by all our estimates and numerical simulations for the specific situation. The time for an electron to pass through the laser gate is very short, and for the radiation friction to affect the motion, one needs ©¡« 102-103, which is beyond the domain of interest. Also, when addressing the EM-electron interaction, we use classical approach, since in the cases of interest, a typical number of photons absorbed by an electron per pass, is of the order of mc2/¯h?¡« 106.
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    [CrossRef]
  15. D. L. Webster, "Cathode-Ray Bunching," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 501-508 (1939).
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  16. W. W. Hansen, "A Type of Electrical Resonator," J. Appl. Phys. 9, 654-663 (1938).
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  17. W. W. Hansen and R. D. Richtmyer, "On Resonators Suitable for Klystron Oscillators," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 189-199 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  18. It would be a challenging but greatly rewarding endeavor to develop Hansen-like resonators for optical domain; there is no physical restriction on the size of the field inhomogeneity ?L.
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  20. A. E. Kaplan, "Relativistic nonlinear optics of a single cyclotron electron," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 456-459 (1986)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. E. Kaplan and Y. J. Ding, "Hysteretic and multiphoton optical resonances of a single cyclotron electron," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1470-1482 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Becker and J. K. McIver, "Classical theory of stimulated C?erenkov radiation," Phys. Rev. A 31, 783-789 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. E. Kaplan and S. Datta, "Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray Emission and Amplification by Non-relativistic Beams Traversing a Superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 661-663 (1984)
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Datta and A. E. Kaplan, "Quantum Theory of Spontaneous and Stimulated Resonant Transition Radiation," Phys. Rev. A. 31, 790-796 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, "Lasetron: a proposed source of powerful nuclear-time-scale electromagnetic bursts," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, 074801(1-4) (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. V. Ravikumar, R. P. Rodrigues, and V. P. Dravid, "Space-charge distribution across internal interfaces in electroceramics using electron holography," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1117-1130 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Ya. B. Zel’dovich and I. D. Novikov, Relativistic Astrophysics, v. 2: The structure and Evolution of the Universe, (The Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1983) p. 361.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth C, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431, 538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Ravikumar, R. P. Rodrigues, and V. P. Dravid, "Space-charge distribution across internal interfaces in electroceramics using electron holography," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1117-1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. E. Kaplan and Y. J. Ding, "Hysteretic and multiphoton optical resonances of a single cyclotron electron," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1470-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. E. Kaplan, "Relativistic nonlinear optics of a single cyclotron electron," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 456-459 (1986)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

S. Datta and A. E. Kaplan, "Quantum Theory of Spontaneous and Stimulated Resonant Transition Radiation," Phys. Rev. A. 31, 790-796 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Becker and J. K. McIver, "Classical theory of stimulated C?erenkov radiation," Phys. Rev. A 31, 783-789 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. E. Kaplan and S. Datta, "Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray Emission and Amplification by Non-relativistic Beams Traversing a Superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 661-663 (1984)
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. V. Fedorov, "Stimulated scattering of electrons by photons and adiabatic switching on hypothesis," Opt. Commun. 12, 205-209 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

T. W. B. Kibble, "Refraction of electron beams by intense electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054-1056 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 7, 168-169 (1958).

1957 (1)

H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R-S. Harvie, "Charged particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187-1187 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1939 (3)

R. H. Varian and S. F. Varian, "A High Frequency Oscillator and Amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 321-327 (1939).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Webster, "Cathode-Ray Bunching," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 501-508 (1939).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Hansen and R. D. Richtmyer, "On Resonators Suitable for Klystron Oscillators," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 189-199 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

W. W. Hansen, "A Type of Electrical Resonator," J. Appl. Phys. 9, 654-663 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

W. Becker and J. K. McIver, "Classical theory of stimulated C?erenkov radiation," Phys. Rev. A 31, 783-789 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boot, H. A. H.

H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R-S. Harvie, "Charged particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187-1187 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Burgy, F.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Datta, S.

S. Datta and A. E. Kaplan, "Quantum Theory of Spontaneous and Stimulated Resonant Transition Radiation," Phys. Rev. A. 31, 790-796 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Kaplan and S. Datta, "Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray Emission and Amplification by Non-relativistic Beams Traversing a Superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 661-663 (1984)
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

A. E. Kaplan and Y. J. Ding, "Hysteretic and multiphoton optical resonances of a single cyclotron electron," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1470-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dravid, V. P.

V. Ravikumar, R. P. Rodrigues, and V. P. Dravid, "Space-charge distribution across internal interfaces in electroceramics using electron holography," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1117-1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Faure, J.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorov, M. V.

M. V. Fedorov, "Stimulated scattering of electrons by photons and adiabatic switching on hypothesis," Opt. Commun. 12, 205-209 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gahn, C.

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaponov, A. V.

A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 7, 168-169 (1958).

Geddes, C. G. R.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth C, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431, 538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glinec, Y.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordienko, S.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Habs, D.

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, W. W.

W. W. Hansen and R. D. Richtmyer, "On Resonators Suitable for Klystron Oscillators," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 189-199 (1939).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Hansen, "A Type of Electrical Resonator," J. Appl. Phys. 9, 654-663 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Harvie, R. B. R-S.

H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R-S. Harvie, "Charged particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187-1187 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. E.

A. E. Kaplan and Y. J. Ding, "Hysteretic and multiphoton optical resonances of a single cyclotron electron," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1470-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kaplan, "Relativistic nonlinear optics of a single cyclotron electron," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 456-459 (1986)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Datta and A. E. Kaplan, "Quantum Theory of Spontaneous and Stimulated Resonant Transition Radiation," Phys. Rev. A. 31, 790-796 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Kaplan and S. Datta, "Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray Emission and Amplification by Non-relativistic Beams Traversing a Superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 661-663 (1984)
[CrossRef]

Kibble, T. W. B.

T. W. B. Kibble, "Refraction of electron beams by intense electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054-1056 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kiselev, S.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefebvre, E.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malka, V.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIver, J. K.

W. Becker and J. K. McIver, "Classical theory of stimulated C?erenkov radiation," Phys. Rev. A 31, 783-789 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. A.

A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 7, 168-169 (1958).

Pretzler, G.

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pukhov, A.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ravikumar, V.

V. Ravikumar, R. P. Rodrigues, and V. P. Dravid, "Space-charge distribution across internal interfaces in electroceramics using electron holography," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1117-1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richtmyer, R. D.

W. W. Hansen and R. D. Richtmyer, "On Resonators Suitable for Klystron Oscillators," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 189-199 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues, R. P.

V. Ravikumar, R. P. Rodrigues, and V. P. Dravid, "Space-charge distribution across internal interfaces in electroceramics using electron holography," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1117-1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, J. P.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thirolf, P.

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsakiris, G. D.

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varian, R. H.

R. H. Varian and S. F. Varian, "A High Frequency Oscillator and Amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 321-327 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Varian, S. F.

R. H. Varian and S. F. Varian, "A High Frequency Oscillator and Amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 321-327 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Webster, D. L.

D. L. Webster, "Cathode-Ray Bunching," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 501-508 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Witte, K. J.

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. E. Kaplan and S. Datta, "Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray Emission and Amplification by Non-relativistic Beams Traversing a Superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 661-663 (1984)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Kaplan and Y. J. Ding, "Hysteretic and multiphoton optical resonances of a single cyclotron electron," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1470-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

V. Ravikumar, R. P. Rodrigues, and V. P. Dravid, "Space-charge distribution across internal interfaces in electroceramics using electron holography," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1117-1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

R. H. Varian and S. F. Varian, "A High Frequency Oscillator and Amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 321-327 (1939).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Webster, "Cathode-Ray Bunching," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 501-508 (1939).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Hansen, "A Type of Electrical Resonator," J. Appl. Phys. 9, 654-663 (1938).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Hansen and R. D. Richtmyer, "On Resonators Suitable for Klystron Oscillators," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 189-199 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R-S. Harvie, "Charged particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187-1187 (1957).
[CrossRef]

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth C, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431, 538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. V. Fedorov, "Stimulated scattering of electrons by photons and adiabatic switching on hypothesis," Opt. Commun. 12, 205-209 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. Becker and J. K. McIver, "Classical theory of stimulated C?erenkov radiation," Phys. Rev. A 31, 783-789 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

S. Datta and A. E. Kaplan, "Quantum Theory of Spontaneous and Stimulated Resonant Transition Radiation," Phys. Rev. A. 31, 790-796 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. E. Kaplan, "Relativistic nonlinear optics of a single cyclotron electron," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 456-459 (1986)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. B. Kibble, "Refraction of electron beams by intense electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054-1056 (1966).
[CrossRef]

C. Gahn, G. D. Tsakiris, A. Pukhov, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, G. Pretzler, P. Thirolf, D. Habs, and K. J. Witte, "Multi-MeV electron beam generation by direct laser acceleration in high-density plasma channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4772-4775 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 7, 168-169 (1958).

Other (11)

A. E. Kaplan and A. L. Pokrovsky, "Fully relativistic theory of the ponderomotive force in an ultraintense standing wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 053601(1-4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Pokrovsky and A. E. Kaplan, "Relativistic reversal of the ponde.romotive force in a standing laser wave," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043401(1-12) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Hogan, C. D. Barnes, and C. F. Clayton, "Multi-GeV energy gain in a plasma-wakefield accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 054802(1-4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shvets, "Beat-Wave Excitation of Plasma Waves Based on Relativistic Bistability,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 195004(1-4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

We neglect here the "radiation friction" force on electron; this was supported by all our estimates and numerical simulations for the specific situation. The time for an electron to pass through the laser gate is very short, and for the radiation friction to affect the motion, one needs ©¡« 102-103, which is beyond the domain of interest. Also, when addressing the EM-electron interaction, we use classical approach, since in the cases of interest, a typical number of photons absorbed by an electron per pass, is of the order of mc2/¯h?¡« 106.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, and L. P. Pitaevskii, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, New-York, 1984), p. 312.

It would be a challenging but greatly rewarding endeavor to develop Hansen-like resonators for optical domain; there is no physical restriction on the size of the field inhomogeneity ?L.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, Pergamon Press, 6th Ed. 1980, p. 127.

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, "Lasetron: a proposed source of powerful nuclear-time-scale electromagnetic bursts," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, 074801(1-4) (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ya. B. Zel’dovich and I. D. Novikov, Relativistic Astrophysics, v. 2: The structure and Evolution of the Universe, (The Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1983) p. 361.

A. E. Kaplan, B. Y. Dubetsky, and P. L. Shkolnikov, "Shock-shells in Coulomb explosion of nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 143401(1-4) (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Focal-plane L-beam field profiles fult (ξ) (solid) and ftrc (ξ) (dashed). (b) Distribution of transmitted electrons (N) with the incident momentum ρ 0 = 3 over relativistic factor γ at the exit of the gate with the maximum field amplitude fmx = 12 for the field profiles fult (solid) and fcs with ξL = 2 (dashed). N 0 - the total number of incident electrons.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase-averaged change of electron energy [curves 1–4 in (a), (b)], 〈Δγ〉 and momentum (5–8), 〈Δρvs incident electron momentum, ρ 0. (a) Numerical simulation for a strongly relativistic laser gate (fmx = 12) with the profile fult (1,5); ftrc (2,6); fcs , ξL = 3.18 (3,7); fcs , ξL = 2.0 (4,8). (b) Numerical (solid) and analytical (Eq. (7), dotted line) results for fcs , ξL = 2, fmx = 0.6 (main plot) and fmx = 0.23 (inset).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Focusing/bunching of electrons (ρ32 = 1) by the laser gate (ξ32 = π,AL = 0.2). Spatio-temporal (b) and temporal (a) at x/λ = 28.5 (I), 36.5 (II), and 102 (III) profiles of the current density, j.

Equations (16)

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d p / dt = e ( E + p × H / γ ) ,
/ = f ( ξ ) sin ( τ + ϕ ) ; / = ρ / γ .
μ 2 π f mx / ( ξ L π 2 + 4 f mx 2 ) 1
f ult ( ξ ) = 3 f mx ( sin ξ ξ cos ξ ) / ξ 3 .
f cs ( ξ ) = f mx cos 2 ( ξ / ξ L ) at ξ / ξ L π / 2 and f cs = 0 otherwise
Δ γ = π 1 [ A L 2 ( γ 0 1 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 if A L > γ 0 1 ,
Δ γ ( 2 ) f mx 2 = B 3 sin ( π / B ) 2 γ 0 3 ( 1 B 2 ) 2 × [ B ( 3 B 2 ) ( 1 B 2 ) sin ( π B ) π cos ( π B ) ] ,
Δ γ ( 2 ) env 2 π f mx 2 ( ρ 0 / ξ L γ 0 2 ) 3
Δ γ ( 2 ) pk = π f mx 2 / ( 4 ξ L 3 ) ,
Δ ρ out ( 1 ) ( ϕ ) = f mx B 2 1 B 2 sin ( π B + ϕ ) sin ( π B ) .
τ ξ ( ϕ ) ϕ + ξ β 0 [ 1 Δ ρ out ( 1 ) ( ϕ ) β 0 γ 0 3 ]
2 π j ξ ( τ ) / j 0 = [ 1 ( ξ / ξ f ) cos ( π / B + ϕ ) ] 1 ,
ξ f = π ( γ 0 ξ L ) 3 ( B 2 1 ) 8 A L sin ( π / B )
j ξ ( τ ) j 0 2 π 1 / δ 1 + ( Δ τ ) 2 / 2 δ 3 where δ = Δ ξ ξ f .
Δ τ f = ω Δ t f = ( h ¯ ω / m c 2 ) / Δ γ max
Δ γ max = 8 A L / ( 3 π ) .

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