Abstract

The operation of a self-starting, passively harmonic modelocked, figure-eight laser is experimentally demonstrated. A stable pulse train with near half duty-cycle is produced at a repetition rate of 1.7 GHz at 1536 nm wavelength without any starting/triggering mechanism and stays modelocked as long as it is being pumped.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Totally fiber integrated, figure-of-eight, femtosecond source at 1065 nm," Opt. Express 11, 265-269 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, "Repetition rate multiplication in figure-eight fibre laser with 3 dB couplers," Opt. Commun. 277, 411-413 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. N. DulingIII, "All-fiber ring soliton laser mode-locked with a nonlinear mirror," Opt. Lett. 16, 539-541 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, "High-energy femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 141, 65-68 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Singh, A. K. Sharma, and R. S. Kaler, "Optimizing 10 Gbps optical communication system with duty cycle selection of return to zero pulse," Optik - Int.J. Light Electron. Opt. 119, 359-364 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. S. Abedin, J. T. Gopinath, L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-stabilized passive, harmonically mode-locked stretched-pulse erbium fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1758-1760 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Xu, M. Yao, B. C. Wang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical clock division with mode-locked figure-eight laser based on the slow carrier recovery rate in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 402-404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Papakyriakopoulos, K. Vlachos, A. Hatziefremidis, and H. Avramopoulos, "20-GHz broadly tunable and stable mode-locked semiconductor amplifier fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 1209-1211 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, "5-ps, 10-GHz pulse generation from an all-optical semiconductor switch embedded in a ring cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2520-2522 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Tzelepis, S. Markatos, S. Kalpogiannis, Th. Sphicopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, "Analysis of a passively mode-locked self-starting all-fiber soliton laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1729-1736 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. J. Frisken, C. A. Telford, R. A. Betts, and. P. S. Atherton, "Passively mode-locked Erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear fibre mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 887-889 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. H. Seong, D. Y. Kim, and S. P. Veetil, "Mode-locked fiber laser based on an attenuation-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 280, 438-442 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. A. Haus, "Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3049-3058 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. B. Grudinin and S. Gray, "Passive harmonic mode locking in soliton fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 144-154 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Nathan Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Singh, A. K. Sharma, and R. S. Kaler, "Optimizing 10 Gbps optical communication system with duty cycle selection of return to zero pulse," Optik - Int.J. Light Electron. Opt. 119, 359-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

N. H. Seong, D. Y. Kim, and S. P. Veetil, "Mode-locked fiber laser based on an attenuation-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 280, 438-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, "Repetition rate multiplication in figure-eight fibre laser with 3 dB couplers," Opt. Commun. 277, 411-413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

K. S. Abedin, J. T. Gopinath, L. A. Jiang, M. E. Grein, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-stabilized passive, harmonically mode-locked stretched-pulse erbium fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1758-1760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, M. Yao, B. C. Wang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical clock division with mode-locked figure-eight laser based on the slow carrier recovery rate in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 402-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, "5-ps, 10-GHz pulse generation from an all-optical semiconductor switch embedded in a ring cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2520-2522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Nathan Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, "High-energy femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 141, 65-68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Grudinin and S. Gray, "Passive harmonic mode locking in soliton fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 144-154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

V. Tzelepis, S. Markatos, S. Kalpogiannis, Th. Sphicopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, "Analysis of a passively mode-locked self-starting all-fiber soliton laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1729-1736 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. J. Frisken, C. A. Telford, R. A. Betts, and. P. S. Atherton, "Passively mode-locked Erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear fibre mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 887-889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. N. DulingIII, "All-fiber ring soliton laser mode-locked with a nonlinear mirror," Opt. Lett. 16, 539-541 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. A. Haus, "Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3049-3058 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

Atherton, P. S.

S. J. Frisken, C. A. Telford, R. A. Betts, and. P. S. Atherton, "Passively mode-locked Erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear fibre mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 887-889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Avdokhin, A. V.

Avramopoulos, H.

Bergman, K.

J. Nathan Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Betts, R. A.

S. J. Frisken, C. A. Telford, R. A. Betts, and. P. S. Atherton, "Passively mode-locked Erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear fibre mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 887-889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Caroubalos, C.

V. Tzelepis, S. Markatos, S. Kalpogiannis, Th. Sphicopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, "Analysis of a passively mode-locked self-starting all-fiber soliton laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1729-1736 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, "High-energy femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 141, 65-68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Collings, B. C.

J. Nathan Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

Fleming, S.

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, "Repetition rate multiplication in figure-eight fibre laser with 3 dB couplers," Opt. Commun. 277, 411-413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frisken, S. J.

S. J. Frisken, C. A. Telford, R. A. Betts, and. P. S. Atherton, "Passively mode-locked Erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear fibre mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 887-889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

L. Xu, M. Yao, B. C. Wang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical clock division with mode-locked figure-eight laser based on the slow carrier recovery rate in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 402-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, J. T.

Gray, S.

Grein, M. E.

Grudinin, A. B.

A. B. Grudinin and S. Gray, "Passive harmonic mode locking in soliton fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 144-154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hatziefremidis, A.

Haus, H. A.

Ippen, E. P.

Islam, M. K.

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, "High-energy femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 141, 65-68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L. A.

Kaler, R. S.

M. Singh, A. K. Sharma, and R. S. Kaler, "Optimizing 10 Gbps optical communication system with duty cycle selection of return to zero pulse," Optik - Int.J. Light Electron. Opt. 119, 359-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalpogiannis, S.

V. Tzelepis, S. Markatos, S. Kalpogiannis, Th. Sphicopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, "Analysis of a passively mode-locked self-starting all-fiber soliton laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1729-1736 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

N. H. Seong, D. Y. Kim, and S. P. Veetil, "Mode-locked fiber laser based on an attenuation-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 280, 438-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

J. Nathan Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Markatos, S.

V. Tzelepis, S. Markatos, S. Kalpogiannis, Th. Sphicopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, "Analysis of a passively mode-locked self-starting all-fiber soliton laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1729-1736 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, "Repetition rate multiplication in figure-eight fibre laser with 3 dB couplers," Opt. Commun. 277, 411-413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, "5-ps, 10-GHz pulse generation from an all-optical semiconductor switch embedded in a ring cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2520-2522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nathan Kutz, J.

J. Nathan Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Papakyriakopoulos, T.

Payne, D. N.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

Prucnal, P. R.

L. Xu, M. Yao, B. C. Wang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical clock division with mode-locked figure-eight laser based on the slow carrier recovery rate in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 402-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seong, N. H.

N. H. Seong, D. Y. Kim, and S. P. Veetil, "Mode-locked fiber laser based on an attenuation-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 280, 438-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. K.

M. Singh, A. K. Sharma, and R. S. Kaler, "Optimizing 10 Gbps optical communication system with duty cycle selection of return to zero pulse," Optik - Int.J. Light Electron. Opt. 119, 359-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

M. Singh, A. K. Sharma, and R. S. Kaler, "Optimizing 10 Gbps optical communication system with duty cycle selection of return to zero pulse," Optik - Int.J. Light Electron. Opt. 119, 359-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sphicopoulos, Th.

V. Tzelepis, S. Markatos, S. Kalpogiannis, Th. Sphicopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, "Analysis of a passively mode-locked self-starting all-fiber soliton laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1729-1736 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, "5-ps, 10-GHz pulse generation from an all-optical semiconductor switch embedded in a ring cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2520-2522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Telford, C. A.

S. J. Frisken, C. A. Telford, R. A. Betts, and. P. S. Atherton, "Passively mode-locked Erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear fibre mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 887-889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsun, T. O.

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, "High-energy femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 141, 65-68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tzelepis, V.

V. Tzelepis, S. Markatos, S. Kalpogiannis, Th. Sphicopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, "Analysis of a passively mode-locked self-starting all-fiber soliton laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1729-1736 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, "5-ps, 10-GHz pulse generation from an all-optical semiconductor switch embedded in a ring cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2520-2522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Veetil, S. P.

N. H. Seong, D. Y. Kim, and S. P. Veetil, "Mode-locked fiber laser based on an attenuation-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 280, 438-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlachos, K.

Wang, B. C.

L. Xu, M. Yao, B. C. Wang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical clock division with mode-locked figure-eight laser based on the slow carrier recovery rate in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 402-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, M. Yao, B. C. Wang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical clock division with mode-locked figure-eight laser based on the slow carrier recovery rate in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 402-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yao, M.

L. Xu, M. Yao, B. C. Wang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical clock division with mode-locked figure-eight laser based on the slow carrier recovery rate in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 402-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, "Repetition rate multiplication in figure-eight fibre laser with 3 dB couplers," Opt. Commun. 277, 411-413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, "5-ps, 10-GHz pulse generation from an all-optical semiconductor switch embedded in a ring cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2520-2522 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. J. Frisken, C. A. Telford, R. A. Betts, and. P. S. Atherton, "Passively mode-locked Erbium-doped fibre laser with nonlinear fibre mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 887-889 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 67-68 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Nathan Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, "Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Xu, M. Yao, B. C. Wang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, "All-optical clock division with mode-locked figure-eight laser based on the slow carrier recovery rate in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 402-404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. A. Haus, "Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3049-3058 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Electron. Opt. (1)

M. Singh, A. K. Sharma, and R. S. Kaler, "Optimizing 10 Gbps optical communication system with duty cycle selection of return to zero pulse," Optik - Int.J. Light Electron. Opt. 119, 359-364 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

V. Tzelepis, S. Markatos, S. Kalpogiannis, Th. Sphicopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, "Analysis of a passively mode-locked self-starting all-fiber soliton laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1729-1736 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

N. H. Seong, D. Y. Kim, and S. P. Veetil, "Mode-locked fiber laser based on an attenuation-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 280, 438-442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. O. Tsun, M. K. Islam, and P. L. Chu, "High-energy femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 141, 65-68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Min, Y. Zhao, and S. Fleming, "Repetition rate multiplication in figure-eight fibre laser with 3 dB couplers," Opt. Commun. 277, 411-413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of a high duty-cycle, passively mode-locked self-starting fiber laser: PC, polarization controller; PI Isolator, polarization insensitive isolator; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Generated optical pulse amplitude for various SOA currents.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Generated optical pulse train with 1.2 GHz (a) and 1.7 GHz (b) repetition rate and ~0.5 duty cycle at 190 mA and 320 mA SOA current respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured optical pulse with 1.2 GHz (a) and 1.7 GHz (b) repetition rate and ~0.5 duty cycle.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical spectrum corresponding Fig. 3 (a) and Fig. 4 (a) at center wavelength of 1535.7 nm with 0.92 nm bandwidth.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured RF spectrum with 1.2 GHz and 1.7 GHz repetition rate, ISOA = 190mA, 320 mA respectively.

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