Abstract

In this paper, the irradiance-modifying concept is proposed by introducing a microlens array on the p-GaN layer of GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED). Every microlens can locally modulate photons emitting from a micro-scaled active region of multiple quantum wells (MQWs) just beneath the microlens. The azimuthally isotropic irradiance from the GaN-based LED with microlens arrays is demonstrated numerically and experimentally. To realize such a novel LED, one-dimensional GaN microlens array with a period of 1.6 μm and a filling factor of 0.64 are fabricated by using dry etching. According to experimental results, the azimuthally isotropic light emission of proposed LED is observed. By using the angular-resolved photoluminescence, its intensity variation corresponding to the azimuth angles is as low as 10% within the angle region of ±50°.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Chao, S. L. Chung, and T. L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "InGaN microring light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 33-35 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. H. Kim, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with delta doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 566-568 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. J. Chang, W.S. Chen, S. C. Shei, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, C. S. Chang, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and A. J. Lin, "Highly Reliable High-Brightness GaN-Based Flip Chip LEDs," IEEE Tran. Adv. Packaging 30, (2007).
  11. I. Moreno and U. Contreras, "Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays," Opt. Express 15, 3607-3618 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Deller, G. Smith, and J. Franklin, "Colour mixing LEDs with short microsphere doped acrylic rods," Opt. Express 12, 3327-3333 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. Moreno, M. Avendano-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, "Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance," Appl. Opt. 45, 2265-2272 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, "Uniform illumination of distant targets using a spherical light-emitting diode array," Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. T. Hsueh, J. -F. T. Wang, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Azimuthal Anisotropy of Light Extraction from Photonic Crystal Light-emitting Diodes," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim 2007, (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ThF1_4.
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, and T. Lee, "Photonic Quasi-Crystal LEDs Design, modeling, and optimization," Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860R-1-64860R-10 (2007).
  18. H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, "Uniform illumination of distant targets using a spherical light-emitting diode array," Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno and U. Contreras, "Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays," Opt. Express 15, 3607-3618 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

I. Moreno, M. Avendano-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, "Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance," Appl. Opt. 45, 2265-2272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chao, S. L. Chung, and T. L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "InGaN microring light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 33-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Deller, G. Smith, and J. Franklin, "Colour mixing LEDs with short microsphere doped acrylic rods," Opt. Express 12, 3327-3333 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. H. Kim, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with delta doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 566-568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Avendano-Alejo, M.

Borbely, A.

A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

C. H. Chao, S. L. Chung, and T. L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "InGaN microring light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 33-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. L.

C. H. Chao, S. L. Chung, and T. L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, U.

David, A.

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "InGaN microring light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 33-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deguchi, K.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deller, C.

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, J.

Fuji, T.

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ha, G. Y.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. S.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. P.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, R.

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, "Uniform illumination of distant targets using a spherical light-emitting diode array," Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, C. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "InGaN microring light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 33-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

K. H. Kim, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with delta doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 566-568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

K. H. Kim, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with delta doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 566-568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. J.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with delta doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 566-568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

K. H. Kim, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with delta doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 566-568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

K. H. Kim, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with delta doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 566-568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, G.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Min, K. I.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitani, T.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B.

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Mukai, T.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, J.

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, "Uniform illumination of distant targets using a spherical light-emitting diode array," Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shioji, S.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

Sonobe, S.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzonchev, R. I.

Wang, P. T.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. M.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. L.

C. H. Chao, S. L. Chung, and T. L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. W. Choi, C. Liu, E. Gu, G. McConnell, J. M. Girkin, I. M. Watson, and M. D. Dawson, "GaN micro-Light Emitting Diode Arrays with Monolithically-integrated Sapphire micro-lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2253-2255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chao, S. L. Chung, and T. L. Wu, "Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fuji, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, E. L. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kim, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "III-nitride ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with delta doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 566-568 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. I. Na, G. Y. Ha, D. S. Han, S. S. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, D. J. Kim, K. I. Min, and S. J. Park, "Selective wet etching of p-GaN for efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1512-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "InGaN microring light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 33-35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev.

C. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsu, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and P. T. Wang, "Nitride-based light-emitting diodes with p-AlInGaN surface layers," IEEE Tran. Electron. Dev. 52, 2346-2349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J Appl. Phys.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, "InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode," Jpn. J Appl. Phys. 41, 1431-1433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

A. Borbely, S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, J. Munoz, and R. Ivanov, "Uniform illumination of distant targets using a spherical light-emitting diode array," Opt. Eng. 46, 033001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

H. T. Hsueh, J. -F. T. Wang, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Azimuthal Anisotropy of Light Extraction from Photonic Crystal Light-emitting Diodes," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim 2007, (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ThF1_4.
[CrossRef]

M. D. B. Charlton, M. E. Zoorob, and T. Lee, "Photonic Quasi-Crystal LEDs Design, modeling, and optimization," Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860R-1-64860R-10 (2007).

S. J. Chang, W.S. Chen, S. C. Shei, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, Y. P. Hsu, C. S. Chang, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, and A. J. Lin, "Highly Reliable High-Brightness GaN-Based Flip Chip LEDs," IEEE Tran. Adv. Packaging 30, (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed GaN-based LED. The microlens patterns are employed on the top surface of the p-GaN layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Angular radiation patterns emitting from the proposed LEDs with microlens arrays of filling factors F = 0, 0.4, 0.64, and 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The case A of full modulation. (a) Poynting intensity distribution of the proposed LED with the single point-source arranged in the MQWs beneath the central part of microlens. (b) Radiation pattern.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The case B of partial modulation. (a) Poynting intensity distribution of the proposed LED with the single point-source arranged in the MQWs beneath the right corner of microlens. (b) Radiation pattern.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The case C of non-modulation. (a) Poynting intensity distribution of the proposed LED with the single point-source arranged in the MQWs beneath the planar p-GaN layer between two microlenses. (b) Radiation pattern.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The combinations of case A, B, and C. (a) Poynting intensity distribution of the proposed LED with five point sources arranged in the MQWs beneath one identical period of the microlens. (b) Radiation pattern.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Combinations of case A, B, and C with dense point-source. (a) Poynting intensity distribution of the proposed LED with seventeen point-source arranged in the MQWs beneath one identical period of the microlens. (b) Radiation pattern of seventeen point-sources (green line).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Images of fabricated microlens array by (a) SEM and (b) AFM.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Angular-resolved photoluminescence measurement setup.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured angular radiation patterns of microlens and planar LEDs.

Metrics