Abstract

We investigate the intensity dependent spatial drift of two-color plasma based terahertz (THz) sources. A simple scheme that uses an off-axis parabolic mirror is presented to overcome this shifting. In addition, the THz energy and electric field measurements are related via the real time images of the THz spot size.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Nuss and J. Orenstein, Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy, Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed., (Springer, Berlin, 1998).
  2. D. Mittleman, Sensing with Terahertz Radiation, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
  3. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J. -P. Wolf, "Generation of 30 ?J single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification," Opt. Lett. 33, 2497-2499 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Hebling, G. Almási, and I. Z. Kozma "Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large area THz-pulse generation," Opt. Express 10, 1161-1166 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  6. H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air," Opt. Lett. 25, 1210-1212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, "Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves," Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805-2807 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577-4584 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, "Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions," Nat. Photonics 2, 605-609 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. http://www.alls.ca/
  14. S. Fourmaux, S. Payeur, A. Alexandrov, C. Serbanescu, F. Martin, T. Ozaki, A. Kudryashov, and J. C. Kieffer, "Laser beam wavefront correction for ultra-high intensities with the 200 TW laser system at the Advanced Laser Light Source," Opt. Express 16, 11987-11994 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 ?J single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212-13220 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, "Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma," Appl. Phys Lett. 88, 261103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009)
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750-5755 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. http://www.thzdb.org/
  22. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics (John Wiley & Suns, Inc. 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2924-2926 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009)
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma," Appl. Phys Lett. 88, 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805-2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akozbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, A.

Almási, G.

Bandulet, H.-C.

Bartel, T.

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

Bonacina, L.

Chekalin, S. V.

Chin, S. L.

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Dai, J.

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009)
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eden, S.

Elsaesser, T.

Falcone, R. W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fourmaux, S.

Gaal, P.

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, "Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions," Nat. Photonics 2, 605-609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577-4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamster, H.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

Hegmann, F. A.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma," Appl. Phys Lett. 88, 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

Kieffer, J.-C.

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, "Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions," Nat. Photonics 2, 605-609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577-4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kozma, I. Z.

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, "Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kress, M.

Kudryashov, A.

Litz, M.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, "Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, "Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves," Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

Morandotti, R.

Ozaki, T.

Payeur, S.

Razzari, L.

Reid, M.

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, "Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions," Nat. Photonics 2, 605-609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577-4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, "Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, "Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves," Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serbanescu, C.

Sharma, G.

Stepanov, A. G.

Sullivan, A.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, "Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions," Nat. Photonics 2, 605-609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577-4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theberge, F.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, "Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, H. F.

White, W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

Wolf, J. -P.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009)
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma," Appl. Phys Lett. 88, 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma," Appl. Phys Lett. 88, 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys Lett. (1)

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma," Appl. Phys Lett. 88, 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz wave generation from gas plasma using a phase compensator with attosecond phase-control accuracy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021117 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, "Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications," Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349-368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, "Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions," Nat. Photonics 2, 605-609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

M. C. Nuss and J. Orenstein, Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy, Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids, G. Grüner, ed., (Springer, Berlin, 1998).

D. Mittleman, Sensing with Terahertz Radiation, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

http://www.thzdb.org/

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics (John Wiley & Suns, Inc. 1991).
[CrossRef]

http://www.alls.ca/

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the THz two-color plasma set-up at the Advanced Laser Light Source. A Pixelfly CCD camera was used to visualize the plasma at the focus. The schematic clearly shows the modification we have implemented in order to avoid focal shifting.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Image of the plasma generated using a focusing transmission lens (A), and a gold off-axis parabolic mirror (B).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Axial intensity values of the plasma formation in the propagation direction for: (A) lens focusing and (B) gold off-axis parabolic mirror focusing. Theses images are taken using a 10 nm band-pass filter centered at 800 nm to image the plasma induced scattering of the optical pump.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Peak electric field values as a function of the ZnTe detector position. (A) Normalized peak electric field and Gaussian fit curves obtained from a transmission lens with a 150 mm focal length. (B) Normalized peak electric field measured from a gold off-axis parabolic mirror with the same focal length.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Total THz pulse energy emitted from a two-color plasma source as a function of the incident 800 nm laser excitation energy, for a lens (diamonds) and a gold off-axis parabolic mirror (squares). The focal length was 150 mm in both cases

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Real time image of focused THz pulse obtained with an infrared pyroelectric camera (ElectroPhysics model PV320-L2Z). THz spot images obtained for (A) a two-color plasma source using lens based focusing; (B) a two-color plasma source using a gold off-axis parabolic mirror based focusing. (C) In-line profiles extracted from the THz images.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(A) Electric field plot obtained with the off-axis parabolic mirror configuration using 9 mJ of laser excitation. (B) Power Fourier transform of the electric field plot.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 ω 0 4 π λ F # ,
w I = Z R λ 2 π ,
E 0 = η 0 W π w I 2 g 2 ( t ) d t ,

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