Abstract

We study under which conditions extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) structures can be used to build negative refractive index media. As a result, we present a metamaterial with superimposed EOT and negative index at visible wavelengths. The tailoring process starting from a simple hole array until achieving the negative index is detailed. We also discuss the so-called fishnet metamaterial (previously linked to EOT) under the same prism. Using the ideas put forward in this work, other structures with negative index could be engineered in the optical or visible spectrum.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. J. García de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267-1290 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 41-48 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, M. Navarro-Cía, F. Falcone, I. Campillo, and V. Lomakin, "Extraordinary transmission and left-handed propagation in miniaturized stacks of doubly periodic subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 15, 1107-1114 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Mary, S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory of negative-refractive-index response of double-fishnet structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, "A new condition to identify isotropic dielectric-magnetic materials displaying negative phase velocity," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315-316 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, Y. Hsiao-Kuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, "The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 1186-1195 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608-016614 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, R. Salvador, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, "Low-loss single-layer metamaterial with negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths," Opt. Express 15, 9320-9325 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, "Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
    [CrossRef]

2008

A. Mary, S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory of negative-refractive-index response of double-fishnet structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, Y. Hsiao-Kuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, "The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 1186-1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2004

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, "A new condition to identify isotropic dielectric-magnetic materials displaying negative phase velocity," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315-316 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608-016614 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Beruete, M.

Cai, W.

Campillo, I.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608-016614 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Depine, R. A.

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, "A new condition to identify isotropic dielectric-magnetic materials displaying negative phase velocity," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315-316 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

Falcone, F.

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. García de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267-1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García-Meca, C.

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, R. Salvador, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, "Low-loss single-layer metamaterial with negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths," Opt. Express 15, 9320-9325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, "Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

A. Mary, S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory of negative-refractive-index response of double-fishnet structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608-016614 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao-Kuan, Y.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608-016614 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, "A new condition to identify isotropic dielectric-magnetic materials displaying negative phase velocity," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315-316 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

Lomakin, V.

Martí, J.

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, R. Salvador, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, "Low-loss single-layer metamaterial with negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths," Opt. Express 15, 9320-9325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, "Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, A.

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, R. Salvador, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, "Low-loss single-layer metamaterial with negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths," Opt. Express 15, 9320-9325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, "Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

A. Mary, S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory of negative-refractive-index response of double-fishnet structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mary, A.

A. Mary, S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory of negative-refractive-index response of double-fishnet structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro-Cía, M.

Ortuño, R.

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, R. Salvador, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, "Low-loss single-layer metamaterial with negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths," Opt. Express 15, 9320-9325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, "Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608-016614 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

A. Mary, S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory of negative-refractive-index response of double-fishnet structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. J.

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, "Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Salvador, R.

Shalaev, V. M.

Sorolla, M.

Soukoulis, C. M.

Thio, T.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Wu, B.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608-016614 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, "A new condition to identify isotropic dielectric-magnetic materials displaying negative phase velocity," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315-316 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 41-48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, "Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608-016614 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mary, S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory of negative-refractive-index response of double-fishnet structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

F. J. García de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267-1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Silver periodic hole array exhibiting EOT. (b) NEOT structure resulting from adding slits to the structure in (a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Normalized transmission of the structures depicted in Fig. 1(a) (blue) and Fig. 1(b) (magenta). (b) Real part of z for both structures (correspondence by color). (c) Comparison of effective ε′ for the hole array with (dashed purple) and without slits (solid blue). Retrieved μ′ (magenta) and n′ (grey) of the hole array with slits [NEOT structure in Fig 1(b)].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) 3-layer metamaterial. (b) Normalized transmission with M2 = MgF2 (purple) and M2 = Ag (blue). NEOT region in grey. (c) Fishnet ε′ (magenta). ε′ of structure in (a) with M2 = Ag and fishnet dimensions (grey) and with b=600 nm, i.e., only horizontal strips (red). Fishnet μ′ (purple) and n′ (blue).

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