Abstract

A surface plasmon-enhanced two-photon total-internal-reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope has been developed to provide fluorescent images of living cell membranes. The proposed microscope with the help of surface plasmons (SPs) not only provides brighter fluorescent images based on the mechanism of local electromagnetic field enhancement, but also reduces photobleaching due to having a shorter fluorophore lifetime. In comparison with a one-photon TIRF, the two-photon TIRF can achieve higher signal-to-noise ratio cell membrane imaging due its smaller excitation volume and lower scattering. By combining the SP enhancement and two-photon excitation TIRF, the microscope has demonstrated it’s capability for brighter and more contrasted fluorescence membrane images of living monkey kidney COS-7 fibroblasts transfected with an EYFP-MEM or EGFP-WOX1 construct.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 1-31(2008).
[CrossRef]

X.  Huang, P. K.  Jain, I. H.  El-Sayed, and M. A.  El-Sayed, "Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Q. Hong, L. J. Hsu, L. Schultz, N. Pratt, J. Mattison, and N. S. Chang, "Zfra affects TNF-mediated cell death by interacting with death domain protein TRADD and negatively regulates the activation of NF-?B, JNK1, p53 and WOX1 during stress response," BMC Mol. Bio. 8, 50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

R. Y. He, G. L. Chang, H. L. Wu, C. H. Lin, K. C. Chiu, Y. D. Su, and S.-J. Chen, "Enhanced live cell membrane imaging using surface plasmon-enhanced total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 9307-9316 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Chang, L. J. Hsu, Y. S. Lin, F. J. Lai, and H. M. Sheu, "WW domain-containing oxidoreductase: a candidate tumor suppressor," Trends Mol. Med. 13, 12-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

J. Enderlein and T. Ruckstuhl, "The efficiency of surface-plasmon coupled emission for sensitive fluorescence detection," Opt. Express 13, 8855-8865 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 55-62 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications," Sens. Actuators B 107, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: applications in oral cancer," Nano Lett. 5, 829-835 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, "Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission," Thin Solid Films 491, 173-176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Oheim and F. Schapper, "Non-linear evanescent-field imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R185-R197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Lofas, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level," Anal. Chem. 76, 6765-6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces," Anal. Biochem. 334, 303-311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Soria, T. Katchalski, E. Teitelbaum, A. A. Friesem, and G. Marowsky, "Enhanced two-photon fluorescence excitation by resonant grating waveguide structures," Opt. Lett. 29, 1989-1991 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Chen, F. C. Chien, G. Y. Lin, and K. C. Lee, "Enhanced the resolution of surface plasmon resonance biosensors by controlling size and distribution of nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 29, 1390-1392 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J. D. Sutin, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

F. Schapper, J. T. Goncalves, and M. Oheim, "Fluorescence imaging with two-photon evanescent-wave excitation," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 635-643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, and P. Gadenne, "Local second-harmonic generation enhancement on gold nanostructures probed by two-photon microscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 713-715 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen, and P. Mulvaney, "Two-photon fluorescence scanning near-field microscopy based on a focused evanescent field under total internal reflection," Opt. Lett. 28, 1930-1932 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence," J. Fluor. 12, 121-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Chang, N. Pratt, J. Heath, L. Schultz, D. Sleve, G. B. Carey, and N. Zevotek, "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity," J. Bio. Chem. 276, 3361-3370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Axelrod, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology," Traffic 2, 764-774 (2001).

D. Toomre and D. J. Manstein, "Lighting up the cell surface with evanescent wave microscopy," Trends Cell Biol. 11, 298-303 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

S. E. Sund and D. Axelrod, "Actin dynamics at the living cell submembrane imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence photobleaching," Biophys. J. 79, 1655-1669 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sailer, W. S. Strauss, H. Emmert, K. Stock, R. Steiner, and H. Schneckenburger, "Plasma membrane associated location of sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins of different hydrophilicity probed by total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 460-465 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rohrbach, "Observing secretory granules with a multiangle evanescent wave microscope," Biophys. J. 78, 2641-2654 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy," Colloids Surf. A 171, 115-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

H. Kano and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-excited fluorescence enhanced by a surface plasmon," Opt. Lett. 21, 1848-1850 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Betz, F. Mao, and C. B. Smith, "Imaging exocytosis and endocytosis," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 365-371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

Z. Huang and N. L. Thompson, "Theory for two-photon excitation in pattern photobleaching with evanescent illumination," Biophys. Chem. 47, 241-249 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Fulbright and D. Axelrod, "Dynamics of nonspecific adsorption of insulin to erythrocyte membranes," J. Fluor. 3, 1-16 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

G. A. Truskey, J. S. Burmeister, E. Grapa, and W. M. Reichert, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) II. Topographical mapping of relative cell/substratum separation distances," J. Cell Sci. 103, 491-499 (1992).
[PubMed]

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1962 (1)

N. Bloembergen and P.S. Pershan, "Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. 128, 602-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Anceau, C.

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aslan, K.

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 55-62 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cell biology," Traffic 2, 764-774 (2001).

S. E. Sund and D. Axelrod, "Actin dynamics at the living cell submembrane imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence photobleaching," Biophys. J. 79, 1655-1669 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Fulbright and D. Axelrod, "Dynamics of nonspecific adsorption of insulin to erythrocyte membranes," J. Fluor. 3, 1-16 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bader, M.A.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barry, N.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J. D. Sutin, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, C. A.

W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Betz, W. J.

W. J. Betz, F. Mao, and C. B. Smith, "Imaging exocytosis and endocytosis," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 365-371 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen and P.S. Pershan, "Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. 128, 602-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bopp, M. A.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

Buehler, C.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J. D. Sutin, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bullen, C.

Burmeister, J. S.

G. A. Truskey, J. S. Burmeister, E. Grapa, and W. M. Reichert, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) II. Topographical mapping of relative cell/substratum separation distances," J. Cell Sci. 103, 491-499 (1992).
[PubMed]

Calander, N.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, "Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission," Thin Solid Films 491, 173-176 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carey, G. B.

N. S. Chang, N. Pratt, J. Heath, L. Schultz, D. Sleve, G. B. Carey, and N. Zevotek, "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity," J. Bio. Chem. 276, 3361-3370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. L.

Chang, N. S.

Q. Hong, L. J. Hsu, L. Schultz, N. Pratt, J. Mattison, and N. S. Chang, "Zfra affects TNF-mediated cell death by interacting with death domain protein TRADD and negatively regulates the activation of NF-?B, JNK1, p53 and WOX1 during stress response," BMC Mol. Bio. 8, 50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Chang, L. J. Hsu, Y. S. Lin, F. J. Lai, and H. M. Sheu, "WW domain-containing oxidoreductase: a candidate tumor suppressor," Trends Mol. Med. 13, 12-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Chang, N. Pratt, J. Heath, L. Schultz, D. Sleve, G. B. Carey, and N. Zevotek, "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity," J. Bio. Chem. 276, 3361-3370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-J.

Chien, F. C.

Chiu, K. C.

Chon, J. W.

Duveneck, G. L.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
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Ehrat, M.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: applications in oral cancer," Nano Lett. 5, 829-835 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X.  Huang, P. K.  Jain, I. H.  El-Sayed, and M. A.  El-Sayed, "Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: applications in oral cancer," Nano Lett. 5, 829-835 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X.  Huang, P. K.  Jain, I. H.  El-Sayed, and M. A.  El-Sayed, "Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217-228 (2008).
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R. Sailer, W. S. Strauss, H. Emmert, K. Stock, R. Steiner, and H. Schneckenburger, "Plasma membrane associated location of sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins of different hydrophilicity probed by total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 460-465 (2000).
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Feldmann, J.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
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E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 1-31(2008).
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G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
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W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
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J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
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K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 55-62 (2005).
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C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence," J. Fluor. 12, 121-129 (2002).
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I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, "Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission," Thin Solid Films 491, 173-176 (2005).
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F. Schapper, J. T. Goncalves, and M. Oheim, "Fluorescence imaging with two-photon evanescent-wave excitation," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 635-643 (2003).
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G. A. Truskey, J. S. Burmeister, E. Grapa, and W. M. Reichert, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) II. Topographical mapping of relative cell/substratum separation distances," J. Cell Sci. 103, 491-499 (1992).
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Gratton, E.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J. D. Sutin, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1265-1270 (2004).
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Gresillon, S.

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 1-31(2008).
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K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 55-62 (2005).
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I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, "Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission," Thin Solid Films 491, 173-176 (2005).
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E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces," Anal. Biochem. 334, 303-311 (2004).
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I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, "Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission," Thin Solid Films 491, 173-176 (2005).
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E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces," Anal. Biochem. 334, 303-311 (2004).
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Haiml, M.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
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He, R. Y.

Heath, J.

N. S. Chang, N. Pratt, J. Heath, L. Schultz, D. Sleve, G. B. Carey, and N. Zevotek, "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity," J. Bio. Chem. 276, 3361-3370 (2001).
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J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
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Q. Hong, L. J. Hsu, L. Schultz, N. Pratt, J. Mattison, and N. S. Chang, "Zfra affects TNF-mediated cell death by interacting with death domain protein TRADD and negatively regulates the activation of NF-?B, JNK1, p53 and WOX1 during stress response," BMC Mol. Bio. 8, 50 (2007).
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Q. Hong, L. J. Hsu, L. Schultz, N. Pratt, J. Mattison, and N. S. Chang, "Zfra affects TNF-mediated cell death by interacting with death domain protein TRADD and negatively regulates the activation of NF-?B, JNK1, p53 and WOX1 during stress response," BMC Mol. Bio. 8, 50 (2007).
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N. S. Chang, L. J. Hsu, Y. S. Lin, F. J. Lai, and H. M. Sheu, "WW domain-containing oxidoreductase: a candidate tumor suppressor," Trends Mol. Med. 13, 12-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

X.  Huang, P. K.  Jain, I. H.  El-Sayed, and M. A.  El-Sayed, "Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: applications in oral cancer," Nano Lett. 5, 829-835 (2005).
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X.  Huang, P. K.  Jain, I. H.  El-Sayed, and M. A.  El-Sayed, "Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 217-228 (2008).
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Katchalski, T.

Kato, M.

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935 (1992).
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Keller, U.

G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
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M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935 (1992).
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G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
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Knoll, W.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Lofas, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level," Anal. Chem. 76, 6765-6770 (2004).
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T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy," Colloids Surf. A 171, 115-130 (2000).
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G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
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Ku1rzinger, K.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
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Lai, F. J.

N. S. Chang, L. J. Hsu, Y. S. Lin, F. J. Lai, and H. M. Sheu, "WW domain-containing oxidoreductase: a candidate tumor suppressor," Trends Mol. Med. 13, 12-22 (2006).
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Lakowicz, J. R.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, "Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission," Thin Solid Films 491, 173-176 (2005).
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K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 55-62 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces," Anal. Biochem. 334, 303-311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence," J. Fluor. 12, 121-129 (2002).
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J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
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Liebermann, T.

T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy," Colloids Surf. A 171, 115-130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

Lin, G. Y.

Lin, Y. S.

N. S. Chang, L. J. Hsu, Y. S. Lin, F. J. Lai, and H. M. Sheu, "WW domain-containing oxidoreductase: a candidate tumor suppressor," Trends Mol. Med. 13, 12-22 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lofas, S.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Lofas, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level," Anal. Chem. 76, 6765-6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacCraith, B. D.

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications," Sens. Actuators B 107, 148-153 (2005).
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I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, J. R. Lakowicz, E. M. Goldys, N. Calander, and Z. Gryczynski, "Directional two-photon induced surface plasmon-coupled emission," Thin Solid Films 491, 173-176 (2005).
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K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 55-62 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces," Anal. Biochem. 334, 303-311 (2004).
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W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
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D. Toomre and D. J. Manstein, "Lighting up the cell surface with evanescent wave microscopy," Trends Cell Biol. 11, 298-303 (2001).
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B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J. D. Sutin, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1265-1270 (2004).
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W. J. Betz, F. Mao, and C. B. Smith, "Imaging exocytosis and endocytosis," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 365-371 (1996).
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Marder, S. R.

W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
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S. Soria, T. Katchalski, E. Teitelbaum, A. A. Friesem, and G. Marowsky, "Enhanced two-photon fluorescence excitation by resonant grating waveguide structures," Opt. Lett. 29, 1989-1991 (2004).
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G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Masters, B. R.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J. D. Sutin, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattison, J.

Q. Hong, L. J. Hsu, L. Schultz, N. Pratt, J. Mattison, and N. S. Chang, "Zfra affects TNF-mediated cell death by interacting with death domain protein TRADD and negatively regulates the activation of NF-?B, JNK1, p53 and WOX1 during stress response," BMC Mol. Bio. 8, 50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matveeva, E.

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology," Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 55-62 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matveeva, Z. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence immunoassays using total internal reflection and silver island-coated surfaces," Anal. Biochem. 334, 303-311 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonagh, C.

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications," Sens. Actuators B 107, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McEvoy, H. M.

O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications," Sens. Actuators B 107, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mulvaney, P.

Nichtl, A.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
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M. Oheim and F. Schapper, "Non-linear evanescent-field imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R185-R197 (2005).
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F. Schapper, J. T. Goncalves, and M. Oheim, "Fluorescence imaging with two-photon evanescent-wave excitation," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 635-643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okunaka, M.

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
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N. Bloembergen and P.S. Pershan, "Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. 128, 602-622 (1962).
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Persson, B.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Lofas, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level," Anal. Chem. 76, 6765-6770 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pond, S. J. K.

W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, N.

Q. Hong, L. J. Hsu, L. Schultz, N. Pratt, J. Mattison, and N. S. Chang, "Zfra affects TNF-mediated cell death by interacting with death domain protein TRADD and negatively regulates the activation of NF-?B, JNK1, p53 and WOX1 during stress response," BMC Mol. Bio. 8, 50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Chang, N. Pratt, J. Heath, L. Schultz, D. Sleve, G. B. Carey, and N. Zevotek, "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity," J. Bio. Chem. 276, 3361-3370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, G.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, W. M.

G. A. Truskey, J. S. Burmeister, E. Grapa, and W. M. Reichert, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) II. Topographical mapping of relative cell/substratum separation distances," J. Cell Sci. 103, 491-499 (1992).
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Ruckstuhl, T.

Sailer, R.

R. Sailer, W. S. Strauss, H. Emmert, K. Stock, R. Steiner, and H. Schneckenburger, "Plasma membrane associated location of sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins of different hydrophilicity probed by total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 460-465 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schapper, F.

M. Oheim and F. Schapper, "Non-linear evanescent-field imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R185-R197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Schapper, J. T. Goncalves, and M. Oheim, "Fluorescence imaging with two-photon evanescent-wave excitation," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 635-643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneckenburger, H.

R. Sailer, W. S. Strauss, H. Emmert, K. Stock, R. Steiner, and H. Schneckenburger, "Plasma membrane associated location of sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins of different hydrophilicity probed by total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 460-465 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, L.

Q. Hong, L. J. Hsu, L. Schultz, N. Pratt, J. Mattison, and N. S. Chang, "Zfra affects TNF-mediated cell death by interacting with death domain protein TRADD and negatively regulates the activation of NF-?B, JNK1, p53 and WOX1 during stress response," BMC Mol. Bio. 8, 50 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Chang, N. Pratt, J. Heath, L. Schultz, D. Sleve, G. B. Carey, and N. Zevotek, "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity," J. Bio. Chem. 276, 3361-3370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, H. M.

N. S. Chang, L. J. Hsu, Y. S. Lin, F. J. Lai, and H. M. Sheu, "WW domain-containing oxidoreductase: a candidate tumor suppressor," Trends Mol. Med. 13, 12-22 (2006).
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Sleve, D.

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B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J. D. Sutin, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1265-1270 (2004).
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So1nnichsen, C.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
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R. Sailer, W. S. Strauss, H. Emmert, K. Stock, R. Steiner, and H. Schneckenburger, "Plasma membrane associated location of sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins of different hydrophilicity probed by total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 460-465 (2000).
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W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
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R. Sailer, W. S. Strauss, H. Emmert, K. Stock, R. Steiner, and H. Schneckenburger, "Plasma membrane associated location of sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins of different hydrophilicity probed by total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 460-465 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Stranik, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence for sensor applications," Sens. Actuators B 107, 148-153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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R. Sailer, W. S. Strauss, H. Emmert, K. Stock, R. Steiner, and H. Schneckenburger, "Plasma membrane associated location of sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins of different hydrophilicity probed by total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 460-465 (2000).
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N. S. Chang, N. Pratt, J. Heath, L. Schultz, D. Sleve, G. B. Carey, and N. Zevotek, "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity," J. Bio. Chem. 276, 3361-3370 (2001).
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F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Lofas, and W. Knoll, "Surface plasmon fluorescence immunoassay of free prostate-specific antigen in human plasma at the femtomolar level," Anal. Chem. 76, 6765-6770 (2004).
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G. L. Duveneck, M. A. Bopp, M. Ehrat, M. Haiml, U. Keller, M.A. Bader, G. Marowsky, and S. Soria, "Evanescent-field-induced two-photon fluorescence: excitation of macroscopic areas of planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 869-871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935 (1992).
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Z. Huang and N. L. Thompson, "Theory for two-photon excitation in pattern photobleaching with evanescent illumination," Biophys. Chem. 47, 241-249 (1993).
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A. Rohrbach, "Observing secretory granules with a multiangle evanescent wave microscope," Biophys. J. 78, 2641-2654 (2000).
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Q. Hong, L. J. Hsu, L. Schultz, N. Pratt, J. Mattison, and N. S. Chang, "Zfra affects TNF-mediated cell death by interacting with death domain protein TRADD and negatively regulates the activation of NF-?B, JNK1, p53 and WOX1 during stress response," BMC Mol. Bio. 8, 50 (2007).
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W. J. Betz, F. Mao, and C. B. Smith, "Imaging exocytosis and endocytosis," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 365-371 (1996).
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F. Schapper, J. T. Goncalves, and M. Oheim, "Fluorescence imaging with two-photon evanescent-wave excitation," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 635-643 (2003).
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N. S. Chang, N. Pratt, J. Heath, L. Schultz, D. Sleve, G. B. Carey, and N. Zevotek, "Hyaluronidase induction of a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that enhances tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity," J. Bio. Chem. 276, 3361-3370 (2001).
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B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J. D. Sutin, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1265-1270 (2004).
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J. Cell Sci. (1)

G. A. Truskey, J. S. Burmeister, E. Grapa, and W. M. Reichert, "Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) II. Topographical mapping of relative cell/substratum separation distances," J. Cell Sci. 103, 491-499 (1992).
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C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, "Metal-enhanced fluorescence," J. Fluor. 12, 121-129 (2002).
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W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. M. Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6853-6863 (2002).
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M. Oheim and F. Schapper, "Non-linear evanescent-field imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R185-R197 (2005).
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G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. So1nnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Ku1rzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
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J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic illustration of experimental configuration employed for live cell membrane imaging using conventional and SPE TIRF microscopes with one-photon and two-photon excitations of the same fluorophores. (b) Conventional TIRF chip: cell is cultured on collagen-coated slide modified with silane. (c) SPE TIRF chip: cell is cultured on collagen-coated silver thin film modified with thiol.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plot of the enhancement factor of the electric field intensity at the interface between the collagen and buffer in the SPE one-photon/two-photon TIRF chip as a function of silver thickness. Solid line: 473 nm excitation; Dashed line: 800 nm excitation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Solid line: reflectivity spectrum of two-photon TIRF chip as function of incident angle; Dashed line: enhancement factor of electric field intensity at interface between collagen and buffer. (b) Enhancement factor distribution is perpendicular at sensing interface at incident angle of 51.72°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Solid line: reflectivity spectrum of SPE two-photon TIRF chip as function of incident angle; Dashed line: enhancement factor of electric field intensity at interface between collagen and buffer. (b) Enhancement factor distribution is perpendicular at sensing interface at incident angle of 51.72°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Live cell membrane images by utilizing (a) one-photon and (b) two-photon TIRF. The evanescent waves propagate from left to right for both figures.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Surface plasmon-enhanced (a) one-photon and (b) two-photon TIRF live cell membrane images. The SP waves propagate from left to right for both figures.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Live cell images: (a) before, and (b) after high-power femtosecond laser illumination.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k x = ω c ε 0 sin θ = k sp 0 = ω c ε 2 ε 1 ε 2 + ε 1 ,
R 012 = r 01 + r 12 exp ( 2 j k z 1 d 1 ) 1 + r 01 r 12 exp ( 2 j k z 1 d 1 ) 2 with r ij = ( k zi ε i k zj ε j ) / ( k zi ε i + k zj ε j ) for i , j = 0,1,2 ,

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