Abstract

High-contrast imaging of extrasolar planet candidates around a main-sequence star has recently been realized from the ground using current adaptive optics (AO) systems. Advancing such observations will be a task for the Gemini Planet Imager, an upcoming “extreme” AO instrument. High-order “tweeter” and low-order “woofer” deformable mirrors (DMs) will supply a >90%-Strehl correction, a specialized coronagraph will suppress the stellar flux, and any planets can then be imaged in the “dark hole” region. Residual wavefront error scatters light into the DM-controlled dark hole, making planets difficult to image above the noise. It is crucial in this regard that the high-density tweeter, a micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) DM, have sufficient stroke to deform to the shapes required by atmospheric turbulence. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the rate and circumstance of saturation, i.e. stroke insufficiency. A 1024-actuator 1.5-μm-stroke MEMS device was empirically tested with software Kolmogorov-turbulence screens of r0 =10–15 cm. The MEMS when solitary suffered saturation ~4% of the time. Simulating a woofer DM with ~5–10 actuators across a 5-m primary mitigated MEMS saturation occurrence to a fraction of a percent. While no adjacent actuators were saturated at opposing positions, mid-to-high-spatial-frequency stroke did saturate more frequently than expected, implying that correlations through the influence functions are important. Analytical models underpredict the stroke requirements, so empirical studies are important.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

R. Conan, "Mean-square residual error of a wavefront after propagation through atmospheric turbulence and after correction with Zernike polynomials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 526-536 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Lavigne and J.-P. Veran, "Woofer-tweeter control in an adaptive optics system using a Fourier reconstructor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2271-2279 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (6)

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, "Angular Differential Imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique," Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vogel and Q. Yang, "Modeling, simulation, and open-loop control of a continuous facesheet MEMS deformable mirror," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Soummer, "Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures," Astrophys. J.  618, L161- L164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, "High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386-398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. W. Hardy, "Instrumental limitations in adaptive optics for astronomy," Proc. SPIE 1114, 2-13 (1989).

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

Allard, F.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ammons, M.

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ammons, S. M.

K. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsøe, D. Gavel, S. M. Ammons, "The open-loop control of MEMS: Modeling and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barman, T.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, A.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bierden, P.

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

Blain, C.

Bradley, C.

Bradsher, L. S.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Charton, J.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chauvin, G.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, E.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clampin, M.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conan, R.

Cornelissen, S.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

Dillon, D.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, D. R.

K. M. Morzinski, D. T. Gavel, A. P. Norton, D. R. Dillon, and M. R. Reinig, "Characterizing MEMS deformable mirrors for open-loop operation: High-resolution measurements of thin-plate behavior," Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880S (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diouf, A.

Doyon, R.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, "Angular Differential Imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique," Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ehrenreich, D.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D. A.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J.

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, M. P.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusco, T.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gates, E.

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsøe, D. Gavel, S. M. Ammons, "The open-loop control of MEMS: Modeling and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

K. M. Morzinski, D. T. Gavel, A. P. Norton, D. R. Dillon, and M. R. Reinig, "Characterizing MEMS deformable mirrors for open-loop operation: High-resolution measurements of thin-plate behavior," Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880S (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, ´ E.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J. R.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gratadour, D.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grigsby, B.

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hampton, P.

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, "Instrumental limitations in adaptive optics for astronomy," Proc. SPIE 1114, 2-13 (1989).

Harpsøe, K. B. W.

K. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsøe, D. Gavel, S. M. Ammons, "The open-loop control of MEMS: Modeling and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, A.

Hudgin, R.

Johnson, J.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. A.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalas, P.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keskin, O.

Kite, E. S.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krist, J.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacombe, F.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafreniere, D.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, "Angular Differential Imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique," Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lagrange, A.-M.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lavigne, J.-F.

Lockwood, C.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, "Angular Differential Imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique," Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malbet, F.

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, "High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386-398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marois, C.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, "Angular Differential Imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique," Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Max, C.

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Montri, J.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morzinski, K.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsøe, D. Gavel, S. M. Ammons, "The open-loop control of MEMS: Modeling and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morzinski, K. M.

K. M. Morzinski, D. T. Gavel, A. P. Norton, D. R. Dillon, and M. R. Reinig, "Characterizing MEMS deformable mirrors for open-loop operation: High-resolution measurements of thin-plate behavior," Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880S (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mouillet, D.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, L.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, D.

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, "Angular Differential Imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique," Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. Q.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

Norton, A.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

Norton, A. P.

K. M. Morzinski, D. T. Gavel, A. P. Norton, D. R. Dillon, and M. R. Reinig, "Characterizing MEMS deformable mirrors for open-loop operation: High-resolution measurements of thin-plate behavior," Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880S (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, B.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, B. R.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

Palmer, D.

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D. W.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patience, J.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillion, D. W.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rabou, P.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reinig, M.

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reinig, M. R.

K. M. Morzinski, D. T. Gavel, A. P. Norton, D. R. Dillon, and M. R. Reinig, "Characterizing MEMS deformable mirrors for open-loop operation: High-resolution measurements of thin-plate behavior," Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880S (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reza, L.

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Severson, S.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Severson, S. A.

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, "High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386-398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Snell, F. J.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G.

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, I.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soummer, R.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

R. Soummer, "Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures," Astrophys. J.  618, L161- L164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stapelfeldt, K.

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, J. B.

Thomas, S. J.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

Veran, J.-P.

Vogel, C. R.

Wallace, J. K.

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Yu, J. W.

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, "High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386-398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Zuckerman, B.

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

A.-M. Lagrange, D. Gratadour, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, D. Ehrenreich, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, D. Rouan, F. Allard, ´ E. Gendron, J. Charton, L. Mugnier, P. Rabou, J. Montri, and F. Lacombe, "A probable giant planet imaged in the β Pictoris disk. VLT/NaCo deep L’-band imaging," Astron. Astrophys. 493, L21-L25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, "Angular Differential Imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique," Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. Soummer, "Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures," Astrophys. J.  618, L161- L164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (13)

A. Norton, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, D. Palmer, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, S. Cornelissen, "Preliminary characterization of Boston Micromachines’ 4096-actuator deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 7209, 720916 (2009).

K. Morzinski, K. B. W. Harpsøe, D. Gavel, S. M. Ammons, "The open-loop control of MEMS: Modeling and experimental results," Proc. SPIE 6467, 64670G (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701561 (2008).

J. W. Hardy, "Instrumental limitations in adaptive optics for astronomy," Proc. SPIE 1114, 2-13 (1989).

G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Phillion, M. A. Johnson, N. Q. Nguyen, A. Barty, F. J. Snell, D. R. Dillon and L. S. Bradsher, "100-picometer interferometry for EUVL," Proc. SPIE 4688, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, L. Reza, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, S. Olivier, and P. Bierden, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: Performance and characterization of a 1024-MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6113, 61130I (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, J. Evans, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, and L. Poyneer, "The extreme adaptive optics testbed at UCSC: Current results and coronagraphic upgrade," Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722J (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh, J. R. Graham, D. W. Palmer, R. Doyon, J. Dunn, D. T. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. A. Erickson, C. Marois, L. A. Poyneer, and R. Soummer, "The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction," Proc. SPIE 7015, 701518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, D. T. Gavel, A. P. Norton, D. R. Dillon, and M. R. Reinig, "Characterizing MEMS deformable mirrors for open-loop operation: High-resolution measurements of thin-plate behavior," Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880S (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, "Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morzinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargren, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, "Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 5905, 59050Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and B. Grigsby, "Villages: An on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror," Proc. SPIE 6888, 688804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, and S. Severson, "Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): On-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

F. Malbet, J. W. Yu, and M. Shao, "High-dynamic-range imaging using a deformable mirror for space coronography," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 386-398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

C. Marois, B. Macintosh, T. Barman, B. Zuckerman, I. Song, J. Patience, D. Lafreniere, and R. Doyon, "Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799," Science 322,1348-1352 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kalas, J. R. Graham, E. Chiang, M. P. Fitzgerald, M. Clampin, E. S. Kite, K. Stapelfeldt, C. Marois, and J. Krist, "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth," Science 322,1345-1348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

K. M. Morzinski, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Palmer, and A. Norton, "Empirical measurement of MEMS stroke saturation, with implications for woofer-tweeter architectures," Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153N-70153N-12 (2008b).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive optics for astronomical telescopes (Oxford University Press, 1998).

P. Kalas, "GPI: Gemini Planet Imager," http://gpi.berkeley.edu.

S. A. Cornelissen, P. A. Bierden, T. G. Bifano, "A 4096 element continuous facesheet MEMS deformable mirror for high-contrast imaging," Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880V-1-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Severson, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sonoma State University, 300L Darwin Hall, Rohnert Park, CA 94928, (personal communication, 2006).

V. I. Tatarski, Wave propagation in a turbulent medium (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1961).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

4096-element MEMS deformable mirror in the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics. Center square is the reflective surface. The DM is packaged on a ceramic chip carrier and enclosed within a refillable dry-nitrogen-gas chamber behind a pressure window.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the consequences of stroke saturation. Left top: High-pass-filtered Kolmogorov phase screen, linear scale, and its simulated far-field image (left bottom), log scale. Center top: Exaggerated simulation of saturation with clipped Kolmogorov phase screen, linear scale, and its simulated far-field image (center bottom), log scale. Right: Radial averages of the simulated far-field images. Solid line: High-Strehl AO correction. Dashed line: Stroke saturated above 2 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

LAO testing of stroke as a function of spatial frequency for two MEMS deformable mirrors. Diamonds: Device W107#X, pitch 340 μm, voltage range 0–160 V. Plus-signs: Device W95#39, pitch 400 μm, voltage range 0–200 V. The “knee” is located around 9 cycles per aperture for both devices. Note that a DM having sinc influence functions that fall to zero one actuator away would produce a horizontal line on this plot, as would a segmented mirror.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Tweeter stroke required as a function of woofer degrees of freedom for r0 = 15 cm, based on Equation 4.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

To-scale mapping of 8m Gemini pupil (outer gray circle), 5m testbed pupil (inner gray circle), 44×44-actuator array for GPI (full grid), and 32×32-actuator array of MEMS in testbed (black). Fine white grid delineates individual MEMS actuators.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Histogram of individual actuator phases input for the r0 = 15 cm experiment. Dashed line: No woofer (piston and tip/tilt removal only); Dashed-dotted line: 100-cm-pitch woofer correction; Solid line: 50-cm-pitch woofer correction.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Saturation frequency as a function of woofer pitch. Data for experiments at r0 = 10–15 cm are represented by asterisks and diamonds, respectively, while a power-law fit to each experiment is represented by a dotted and a dashed line, respectively. Solid and dashed-dotted curves are predictions for r0 = 10–15 cm, respectively, calculated with Equation 4 (see details in Section 6). The fitting-error constant αF used to derive the predictions was varied smoothly from 0.14 (piston/tip/tilt only) to 0.28 (continuous facesheet DM) over the range d woo f /D > 0.25. This is due to mapping arguments: at the largest d woo f /D ratios, the pitch of one woofer actuator is a good fraction of the primary diameter, and thus whether the woofer actuators overlap or align with the pupil edge becomes important in determining the fitting error. This choice (of 4-woofer-actuators-across as the limit for where the DM becomes like a continuous facesheet) affects the steepness of the predicted curves but not their endpoints, and we note that only one of our experimental data points (290-cm-pitch woofer for r0=15 cm) is well inside this regime where αF is approximated. We see that the saturation incidence if narrow sinc influence functions are assumed should have fallen off more steeply than measured. Thus decreasing the woofer pitch did not reduce saturation occurrence as much as expected. Moderate to high spatial frequencies are saturating more on the MEMS than expected, and a simple analytical calculation underpredicts the stroke requirement.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Maps of MEMS actuator voltages, with saturated actuators marked as follows: actuators saturated low are marked with white crosses, whereas actuators saturated high are marked with black diamonds. Typical results are shown. Left: r0 = 10 cm, no woofer (piston and tip/tilt removal only). Three actuators were saturated high and 11 were saturated low. Center: r0 = 10 cm, d woo f = 134 cm. Two actuators were saturated low (none were saturated high). Right: r0 = 10 cm, d woo f = 62 cm. One actuator was saturated low (none were saturated high).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Histogram of peak-to-valley (i.e. low-spatial-frequency) stroke measured for all MEMS actuators in the r0 = 15 cm experiment. Dashed line: No woofer (piston and tip/tilt removal only); Dashed-dotted line: 100-cm-pitch woofer correction; Solid line: 50-cm-pitch woofer correction. The woofer reduces the peak-to-valley stroke on the MEMS by a factor of 3–4.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Histogram of inter-actuator (i.e. high-spatial-frequency) stroke measured for all MEMS actuators in the r0 = 15 cm experiment. Dashed line: No woofer (piston and tip/tilt removal only); Dashed-dotted line: 100-cm-pitch woofer correction; Solid line: 50-cm-pitch woofer correction. The woofer reduces the inter-actuator stroke on the MEMS by a factor of 2–3.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Stroke measurements for a variety of MEMS DMs in the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics[17].

Tables Icon

Table 2. Stroke saturation results: Fraction of actuators saturated for each set of (r0, d woo f ) parameters, after removing piston and tip/tilt. The number of actuators tested in each case is equal to the total number of MEMS actuators within the pupil, summed over all trials. This quantity varies according to two effects: there is a non-uniform number of trials conducted for each set of parameters, and there is a non-uniform number of actuators analyzed inside the pupil for each trial. The pupil nominally encircles ~ 600 actuators, but actuators are masked out and not counted if they are in regions where phase-wrapping occurs in the interferometric measurement.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Table of measured versus predicted stroke saturation occurrence. Predictions were made by using Equation 4 as the standard deviation to plot a Gaussian distribution of all the probable Kolmogorov phase values, taking the area under the curve outside the cut-off stroke to be proportional to the fraction of actuators saturated. The failure of the predicted values to match the measured values, except at the lowest spatial frequencies, indicates that the decreasing stroke with increasing spatial frequency of W107#X is producing more saturation than expected for a segmented DM or a DM with sinc influence functions.

Equations (4)

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I = FT [ A exp ( 2 π λ i ϕ ) ] 2
σ F 2 = σ F ( d r 0 ) 5 3 ,
σ F = ( ± 5 ) ( 1 2 ) ( λ 2 π ) σ F ( D r 0 ) 5 6 = ± 2.17 μ m surface = 4.3 μ m surface P V .
σ F = ( 1 2 ) ( λ 2 π ) σ F ( d woof r 0 ) 5 6 ,

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