Abstract

Measurements of the underwater polarized light field were performed at different stations, atmospheric conditions and water compositions using a newly developed hyperspectral and multiangular polarimeter during a recent cruise in the coastal areas of New York Harbor -Sandy Hook, NJ region (USA). Results are presented for waters with chlorophyll concentrations 1.3-4.8μg/l and minerals concentrations 2.0-3.9mg/l. Angular and spectral variations of the degree of polarization are found to be consistent with theory. Maximum values of the degree of polarization do not exceed 0.4 and the position of the maximum is close to 100° scattering angle. Normalized radiances and degrees of polarization are compared with simulated ones obtained with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for the atmosphere-ocean system and show satisfactory agreement.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
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2008 (1)

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, R. Dyer, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters," Proc. SPIE 7105, 710509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. J. Peralta, C. Nardell, B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, L. D. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, Michael, B. A. Fafaul, and R. J. Hooker, "Aerosol polarimetry sensor for the Glory Mission," Proc. SPIE 6786, 67865L (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, "Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami and D. McKee, "Determination of biogeochemical properties of marine particles using above water measurements of the degree of polarization at the Brewster angle," Opt. Express 15, 9494-9509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, "Transmission of linearly polarized light in sea water implications for polarization signaling," J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619-3628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2398-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, "The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle," J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2461-2467 (2001).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, "Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453-1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1961 (2)

A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, "A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda," Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129-148 (1961).
[CrossRef]

V.A. Timofeeva, "On the problem of polarization of light in turbid media," Izvestiya Geophysics 5, 766-774 (1961).

1954 (2)

T. H. Waterman, "Polarization Patterns in Submarine Illumination," Science 120, 927-932 (1954)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

1908 (1)

G. Mie, "Beitrage zur optik truber medien, speziell kolloidalen metal-losungen," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-442 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Aas, E.

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, "Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453-1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. T.

Ahmed, S.

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, R. Dyer, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters," Proc. SPIE 7105, 710509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Retrieval of fluorescence from reflectance spectra of algae in sea water through polarization discrimination: modeling and experiments," Appl. Opt. 45, 5568-5581 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

R. J. Peralta, C. Nardell, B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, L. D. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, Michael, B. A. Fafaul, and R. J. Hooker, "Aerosol polarimetry sensor for the Glory Mission," Proc. SPIE 6786, 67865L (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chami, M.

Chowdhary, J.

Cox, C.

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

Cronin, T. W.

N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, "Transmission of linearly polarized light in sea water implications for polarization signaling," J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619-3628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, "The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle," J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2461-2467 (2001).
[PubMed]

Dilligeard, E.

Donaghay, P. L.

Dyer, R.

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, R. Dyer, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters," Proc. SPIE 7105, 710509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erlick, C.

S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, "Under water polarization vision-A physical examination," Recent Res. Dev. in Exp.Theoretical Biol. 1, 123-176 (2005).

Freeman, S.

M. S. Twardowski, C. Moore, M. Slivkoff, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters: Revisited." Prog. Oceanogr.in press.

Freeman, S. A.

Fry, E. S.

Gentili, B.

Gilerson, A.

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, R. Dyer, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters," Proc. SPIE 7105, 710509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Retrieval of fluorescence from reflectance spectra of algae in sea water through polarization discrimination: modeling and experiments," Appl. Opt. 45, 5568-5581 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gill, A.

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gross, B.

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, R. Dyer, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters," Proc. SPIE 7105, 710509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Retrieval of fluorescence from reflectance spectra of algae in sea water through polarization discrimination: modeling and experiments," Appl. Opt. 45, 5568-5581 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hojerslev, N. K.

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, "A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda," Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129-148 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S.

Jerlov, N.

A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, "A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda," Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129-148 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

J. T. Adams and G. W. Kattawar, "Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 1: Upwelling light field," Appl. Opt. 36, 1976-1986 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, "Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453-1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lerner, A.

S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, "Under water polarization vision-A physical examination," Recent Res. Dev. in Exp.Theoretical Biol. 1, 123-176 (2005).

Lundgren, B.

McKee, D.

Michael, M. I.

R. J. Peralta, C. Nardell, B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, L. D. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, Michael, B. A. Fafaul, and R. J. Hooker, "Aerosol polarimetry sensor for the Glory Mission," Proc. SPIE 6786, 67865L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, "Beitrage zur optik truber medien, speziell kolloidalen metal-losungen," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-442 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

R. J. Peralta, C. Nardell, B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, L. D. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, Michael, B. A. Fafaul, and R. J. Hooker, "Aerosol polarimetry sensor for the Glory Mission," Proc. SPIE 6786, 67865L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C.

M. S. Twardowski, C. Moore, M. Slivkoff, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters: Revisited." Prog. Oceanogr.in press.

Morel, A.

Moshary, F.

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, R. Dyer, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters," Proc. SPIE 7105, 710509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Retrieval of fluorescence from reflectance spectra of algae in sea water through polarization discrimination: modeling and experiments," Appl. Opt. 45, 5568-5581 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

C. Cox and W. Munk, "Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter," J. Mar. Res. 13, 198-227 (1954).

Nardell, C.

R. J. Peralta, C. Nardell, B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, L. D. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, Michael, B. A. Fafaul, and R. J. Hooker, "Aerosol polarimetry sensor for the Glory Mission," Proc. SPIE 6786, 67865L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oo, M.

Peralta, R. J.

R. J. Peralta, C. Nardell, B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, L. D. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, Michael, B. A. Fafaul, and R. J. Hooker, "Aerosol polarimetry sensor for the Glory Mission," Proc. SPIE 6786, 67865L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S.

Ramella-Roman, J.

Russell, E. E.

R. J. Peralta, C. Nardell, B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, L. D. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, Michael, B. A. Fafaul, and R. J. Hooker, "Aerosol polarimetry sensor for the Glory Mission," Proc. SPIE 6786, 67865L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sabbah, S.

S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, "Under water polarization vision-A physical examination," Recent Res. Dev. in Exp.Theoretical Biol. 1, 123-176 (2005).

N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, "Transmission of linearly polarized light in sea water implications for polarization signaling," J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619-3628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santer, R.

Shashar, N.

S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, "Under water polarization vision-A physical examination," Recent Res. Dev. in Exp.Theoretical Biol. 1, 123-176 (2005).

N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, "Transmission of linearly polarized light in sea water implications for polarization signaling," J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619-3628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, "The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle," J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2461-2467 (2001).
[PubMed]

Slivkoff, M.

M. S. Twardowski, C. Moore, M. Slivkoff, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters: Revisited." Prog. Oceanogr.in press.

Sullivan, J.

M. S. Twardowski, C. Moore, M. Slivkoff, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters: Revisited." Prog. Oceanogr.in press.

Sullivan, J. M.

Timofeeva, V.A.

V.A. Timofeeva, "On the problem of polarization of light in turbid media," Izvestiya Geophysics 5, 766-774 (1961).

Tonizzo, A.

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, R. Dyer, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters," Proc. SPIE 7105, 710509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

R. J. Peralta, C. Nardell, B. Cairns, E. E. Russell, L. D. Travis, M. I. Mishchenko, Michael, B. A. Fafaul, and R. J. Hooker, "Aerosol polarimetry sensor for the Glory Mission," Proc. SPIE 6786, 67865L (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, C. Moore, M. Slivkoff, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters: Revisited." Prog. Oceanogr.in press.

Voss, K. J.

Waterman, T. H.

A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, "A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda," Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129-148 (1961).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Waterman, "Polarization Patterns in Submarine Illumination," Science 120, 927-932 (1954)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, C. Moore, M. Slivkoff, J. Sullivan, S. Freeman, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters: Revisited." Prog. Oceanogr.in press.

Zhou, J.

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, R. Dyer, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Characterization of multi-angular hyperspectral polarized reflectance from coastal waters," Proc. SPIE 7105, 710509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, M. Oo, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, "Retrieval of fluorescence from reflectance spectra of algae in sea water through polarization discrimination: modeling and experiments," Appl. Opt. 45, 5568-5581 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ahmed, A. Gilerson, A. Gill, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and J. Zhou, "Separation of fluorescence and elastic scattering from algae in seawater using polarization discrimination," Opt. Commun. 235, 23-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Mie, "Beitrage zur optik truber medien, speziell kolloidalen metal-losungen," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-442 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, "Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water," Appl. Opt. 23, 4427-4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometry of observation. θSun is the solar zenith angle; θd is the detector, or viewing zenith angle; θsca is the scattering angle; φ is the detector azimuthal angle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The underwater instrument developed by the Optical Remote Sensing group at City College of New York. (a) The instrument on the deck of R/V “Connecticut”, (b) a detail of the Satlantic Hyperspectral sensors, (c) the instrument under water.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption and attenuation spectra recorded with the WetLabs package.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

GER total reflectance spectra.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of MASCOT measurements and standard Petzold functions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral dependence of the signal recorded by the Satlantic Hyperspectral sensors when the scattering angle is 0° (a) and when it’s 90° (b). The instrument is positioned in the main scattering plane, 1m below water.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dependence of normalized radiance components on the scattering angle

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Spread of the data points acquired during a set of measurements. Data are shown for Station 1, λ=550nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a)-(d) Plots of the DOP vs. scattering angle. The instrument is located in the principal plane 1m below water. (e) Downwelling spectral irradiance recorded at the same stations.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Plots of the DOP vs. scattering angle for Station 4: (a) 1m above water, (b) 1m below water. The instrument is located in the principal plane.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Spectral dependence of the DOP: (a) Station 1 and (b) Station 7. The normalized total absorption spectrum (anorm ) and the total absorption spectrum divided by the total attenuation spectrum (atot /ctot ) are also shown.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Comparison of modeled and measured data for 510 nm, Station 1, (a) DOP, (b) normalized radiance. Station 7, (c) DOP, (d) normalized radiance.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Comparison of modeled and measured data for 676nm, Station 1, (a) DOP, (b) normalized radiance.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Spectral comparison of modeled (circles) and measured (solid lines) DOP for four relevant scattering angles, Station 1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Coordinates and solar zenith angles of the sampling stations.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Minerals and chlorophyll concentrations estimations.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DOP = Q 2 + U 2 I .
I = I 0 + I 90 .
DOP = ( I 0 I 90 ) 2 + ( 2 I 45 I 90 I 0 ) 2 I .
DOP = I 0 I 90 I .

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