Abstract

We present a planar design of a metamaterial exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency that is amenable to experimental verification in the microwave frequency band. The design is based on the coupling of a split-ring resonator with a cut-wire in the same plane. We investigate the sensitivity of the parameters of the transmission window on the coupling strength and on the circuit elements of the individual resonators, and we interpret the results in terms of two linearly coupled Lorentzian resonators. Our metamaterial designs combine low losses with the extremely small group velocity associated with the resonant response in the transmission window, rendering them suitable for slow light applications at room temperature.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  15. M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  32. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
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2009 (1)

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, "A metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Penciu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, E. Ozbay, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Multi-gap individual and coupled split-ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 16, 18131-18144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, X. Sahyoun, and I. Veretennicoff, "Miniaturization of photonic waveguides by the use of left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 203111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

S. Guenneau, A. Movchan, G. P’etursson, and S. A. Ramakrishna, "Acoustic metamaterials for sound focusing and confinement," New J. Phys. 9, 399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alu, N. Engheta, A. Erentok, and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Single-negative, double-negative and low index metamaterials and their electromagnetic applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 23-36 (2007).

F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "Design of Spiral and Multiple Split-Ring Resonators for the Realization of Miniaturized Metamaterial Samples," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2258-2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photon. 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative index metamaterials at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, "Optical Conformal Mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling Electromagnetic Fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and J. B. Pendry, "Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 391-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-Index Materials: New Frontiers in Optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kockaert, P. Tassin, G. Van der Sande, I. Veretennicoff, and M. Tlidi, "Negative diffraction pattern dynamics in nonlinear cavities with left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. A 74, 033822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Garcia-Garcia, F. Martin, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelink, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric Coupling to the Electric Resonance of Split-Ring Resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective Medium Theory of Left-handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. Engheta, "An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability," IEEE Ant. Wireless Prop. Lett. 1, 10-13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic Resonances in Individual and Coupled Split-ring Resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929-2936 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ∑ and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alu, A.

A. Alu, N. Engheta, A. Erentok, and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Single-negative, double-negative and low index metamaterials and their electromagnetic applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 23-36 (2007).

Aydin, K.

Baena, J. D.

J. Garcia-Garcia, F. Martin, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelink, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bilotti, F.

F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "Design of Spiral and Multiple Split-Ring Resonators for the Realization of Miniaturized Metamaterial Samples," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2258-2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Economou, E. N.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Penciu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, E. Ozbay, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Multi-gap individual and coupled split-ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 16, 18131-18144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-Index Materials: New Frontiers in Optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric Coupling to the Electric Resonance of Split-Ring Resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective Medium Theory of Left-handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alu, N. Engheta, A. Erentok, and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Single-negative, double-negative and low index metamaterials and their electromagnetic applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 23-36 (2007).

N. Engheta, "An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability," IEEE Ant. Wireless Prop. Lett. 1, 10-13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

Erentok, A.

A. Alu, N. Engheta, A. Erentok, and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Single-negative, double-negative and low index metamaterials and their electromagnetic applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 23-36 (2007).

Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, "A metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Garcia, J.

J. Garcia-Garcia, F. Martin, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelink, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gay-Balmaz, P.

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic Resonances in Individual and Coupled Split-ring Resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929-2936 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenneau, S.

S. Guenneau, A. Movchan, G. P’etursson, and S. A. Ramakrishna, "Acoustic metamaterials for sound focusing and confinement," New J. Phys. 9, 399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jelink, L.

J. Garcia-Garcia, F. Martin, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelink, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

R. S. Penciu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, E. Ozbay, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Multi-gap individual and coupled split-ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 16, 18131-18144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-Index Materials: New Frontiers in Optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective Medium Theory of Left-handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric Coupling to the Electric Resonance of Split-Ring Resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric Coupling to the Electric Resonance of Split-Ring Resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kockaert, P.

P. Kockaert, P. Tassin, G. Van der Sande, I. Veretennicoff, and M. Tlidi, "Negative diffraction pattern dynamics in nonlinear cavities with left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. A 74, 033822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Penciu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, E. Ozbay, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Multi-gap individual and coupled split-ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 16, 18131-18144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric Coupling to the Electric Resonance of Split-Ring Resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective Medium Theory of Left-handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, "Optical Conformal Mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

Liu, M.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marques, R.

J. Garcia-Garcia, F. Martin, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelink, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

J. Garcia-Garcia, F. Martin, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelink, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic Resonances in Individual and Coupled Split-ring Resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929-2936 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Movchan, A.

S. Guenneau, A. Movchan, G. P’etursson, and S. A. Ramakrishna, "Acoustic metamaterials for sound focusing and confinement," New J. Phys. 9, 399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, "A metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penciu, R. S.

Pendry, J. B.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling Electromagnetic Fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and J. B. Pendry, "Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 391-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, "A metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sahyoun, X.

P. Tassin, X. Sahyoun, and I. Veretennicoff, "Miniaturization of photonic waveguides by the use of left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 203111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling Electromagnetic Fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photon. 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling Electromagnetic Fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and J. B. Pendry, "Homogenization of metamaterials by field averaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 391-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Penciu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, E. Ozbay, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Multi-gap individual and coupled split-ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 16, 18131-18144 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative index metamaterials at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-Index Materials: New Frontiers in Optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric Coupling to the Electric Resonance of Split-Ring Resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective Medium Theory of Left-handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, X. Sahyoun, and I. Veretennicoff, "Miniaturization of photonic waveguides by the use of left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 203111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kockaert, P. Tassin, G. Van der Sande, I. Veretennicoff, and M. Tlidi, "Negative diffraction pattern dynamics in nonlinear cavities with left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. A 74, 033822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tlidi, M.

P. Kockaert, P. Tassin, G. Van der Sande, I. Veretennicoff, and M. Tlidi, "Negative diffraction pattern dynamics in nonlinear cavities with left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. A 74, 033822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toscano, A.

F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "Design of Spiral and Multiple Split-Ring Resonators for the Realization of Miniaturized Metamaterial Samples," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2258-2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van der Sande, G.

P. Kockaert, P. Tassin, G. Van der Sande, I. Veretennicoff, and M. Tlidi, "Negative diffraction pattern dynamics in nonlinear cavities with left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. A 74, 033822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vegni, L.

F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "Design of Spiral and Multiple Split-Ring Resonators for the Realization of Miniaturized Metamaterial Samples," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2258-2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Veretennicoff, I.

P. Tassin, X. Sahyoun, and I. Veretennicoff, "Miniaturization of photonic waveguides by the use of left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 203111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Kockaert, P. Tassin, G. Van der Sande, I. Veretennicoff, and M. Tlidi, "Negative diffraction pattern dynamics in nonlinear cavities with left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. A 74, 033822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ∑ and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, "A metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

A. Alu, N. Engheta, A. Erentok, and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Single-negative, double-negative and low index metamaterials and their electromagnetic applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 23-36 (2007).

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-Index Materials: New Frontiers in Optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Tassin, X. Sahyoun, and I. Veretennicoff, "Miniaturization of photonic waveguides by the use of left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 203111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric Coupling to the Electric Resonance of Split-Ring Resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Ant. Wireless Prop. Lett. (1)

N. Engheta, "An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability," IEEE Ant. Wireless Prop. Lett. 1, 10-13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

A. Alu, N. Engheta, A. Erentok, and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Single-negative, double-negative and low index metamaterials and their electromagnetic applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 23-36 (2007).

F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "Design of Spiral and Multiple Split-Ring Resonators for the Realization of Miniaturized Metamaterial Samples," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2258-2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Gay-Balmaz and O. J. F. Martin, "Electromagnetic Resonances in Individual and Coupled Split-ring Resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929-2936 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Garcia-Garcia, F. Martin, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelink, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Photon. (1)

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photon. 1, 41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

S. Guenneau, A. Movchan, G. P’etursson, and S. A. Ramakrishna, "Acoustic metamaterials for sound focusing and confinement," New J. Phys. 9, 399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. (1)

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Applic. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Kockaert, P. Tassin, G. Van der Sande, I. Veretennicoff, and M. Tlidi, "Negative diffraction pattern dynamics in nonlinear cavities with left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. A 74, 033822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Low Loss Metamaterials Based on Classical Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, "A metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective Medium Theory of Left-handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Plasmon-Induced Transparency in Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative index metamaterials at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, "Optical Conformal Mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling Electromagnetic Fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ∑ and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, "Transformation Optics and the Geometry of Light," Prog. Opt., in press (2008). http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.4778v2

C. Caloz and T. Itoh, "Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications" (Wiley, New Jersey, 2005).

A. Figotin and I. Vitebskiy, "Slow light in photonic crystals," in Waves in Random and Complex Media (Taylor and Francis, London, 2006) Vol. 16.
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Optical Metamaterials," presented at the QELS Postdeadline Session II of CLEO/QELS, San Jose, California, USA, 2008.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The EIT metamaterial is a square lattice with lattice constant a = 10 mm and has in each unit cell a finite wire capacitively coupled to a (dark) split-ring resonator, supported by a 0.8 mm thick Quartz layer. The cut-wire is made of 35 μm thick copper and has a length of l 1 = 7.93 mm and a width of w 1 = 0.5 mm. The two-gap SRR has a total length of l 2 = 6 mm and width of l 3 = 3 mm. The wire width of the SRR is w 2 = 0.5 mm, the gap size is g = 0.7 mm. The separation between the cut-wire and the SRR is d = 2 mm. (b) Absorption spectrum showing the transparency window. (c) Retrieved permittivity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Surface current distribution of the wire and the split-ring resonator: (a) at the absorption peak (f = 9.85 GHz); (b) at the transparency frequency (f = 9.72 GHz).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electric circuit modeling the response of the coupled wire-SRR structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the analytical model for the permittivity of the metamaterial with the data obtained through the retrieval of the permittivity from the S-parameters obtained by numerical simulation. The red line represents the analytical model of Eq. (3); the blue diamonds are the retrieved permittivity data from the numerical simulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Group index, and (b) imaginary part of the permittivity, for the coupled SRR-wire metamaterial. The black dashed lines represent the metamaterial with the same parameters as before; the blue lines represent a metamaterial with higher resistance of the cut-wire.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Group index, and (b) imaginary part of the permittivity, for the coupled SRR-wire metamaterial. The black dashed lines represent the metamaterial with the same parameters as before; the blue lines represent a metamaterial with smaller resistance of the SRR.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Group index, and (b) imaginary part of the permittivity, for the coupled SRR-wire metamaterial. The black dashed lines represent the metamaterial with the same parameters as before; the blue lines represent a metamaterial with weaker coupling, which was obtained by increasing the spatial separation between wire and SRR.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Group index, and (b) imaginary part of the permittivity, for the coupled SRR-wire metamaterial. The black dashed lines represent the metamaterial with the same parameters as before; the blue lines represent a metamaterial with smaller inductance in the dark SRR.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( i 1 i 2 ) = Z 1 ( ν 0 ) ,
( L 1 + R 1 + 1 C 1 1 C c 1 C c L 2 + R 2 + 1 C 2 ) ,
ε = 1 + 2 3 β ( 1 0 ) Z 1 ( 1 0 ) 1 1 3 β ( 1 0 ) Z 1 ( 1 0 ) ,
ε 1 β ( 1 0 ) Z 1 ( 1 0 )
n g = 1 + 2 ω ( 1 0 ) Z 1 ( 1 0 ) + 2 ω d 1 ω ( ( 1 0 ) Z 1 ( 1 0 ) ) .
n g β ω 0 C c 2 L 2 ,

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