Abstract

The advent of two-dimensional arrays of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) opened a range of potential sensing applications for nanotechnology and life-sciences. With each laser independently addressable, there is scope for the development of high-resolution full-field imaging systems with electronic scanning. We report on the first implementation of a self-mixing imaging system with parallel readout based on a monolithic VCSEL array. A self-mixing Doppler signal was acquired from the variation in VCSEL junction voltage rather than from a conventional variation in laser power, thus markedly reducing the system complexity. The sensor was validated by imaging the velocity distribution on the surface of a rotating disc. The results obtained demonstrate that monolithic arrays of Vertical-Cavity lasers present a powerful tool for the advancement of self-mixing sensors into parallel imaging paradigms and provide a stepping stone to the implementation of a full-field self-mixing sensor systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Bosch, C. Bes, L. Scalise, and G. Plantier, "Optical Feedback Interferometry," in Encyclopedia of Sensors, C. A. Grimes and E. C. Dickey, eds., vol. X, pp. 1-20 (American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, CA, 2006).
  2. D. M. Kane and K. A. Shore, eds., Unlocking Dynamical Diversity: Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Lasers (John Wiley, Chichester, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Donati, L. Falzoni, and S. Merlo, "PC-interfaced, compact laser-diode feedback interferometer for displacement measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 942-944 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. de Groot, G. Gallatin, G. Gardopee, and R. Dixon, "Laser feedback metrology of optical systems," Appl. Opt. 28, 2462-2464 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Tucker, J. L. Baque, Y. L. Lim, A. V. Zvyagin, and A. D. Rakic, "Parallel self-mixing imaging system based on an array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Opt. 46, 6237-6246 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, P. Rio, J. Tucker, and A. Rakic, "Displacement and distance measurement using the change in junction voltage across a laser diode due to the self-mixing effect," in Photonics: Design, Technology, and Packaging II, D. Abbott, Y. S. Kivshar, H. H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and S. Fan, eds., Proc. SPIE 6038, 60381O-1 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
  10. R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-55 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Petermann, Laser diode modulation and noise, Advances in Optoelectronics (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1991).
  12. Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1216-1225 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Taylor and Q. Yang, "Optimization of the operating point of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 1441-1449 (1996).
  14. J. Katz, S. Margalit, C. Harder, D. Wilt, and A. Yariv, "Intrinsic electrical equivalent circuit of a laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 4-7 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Juskaitis, N. Rea, and T. Wilson, "Semiconductor laser confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 33, 578-584 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Emcore Corporation, "Laser Products: Array VCSELs," (2009). URL http : //www.emcore.com/fiber optics/laser components/laser products?pid = 49.
  17. P. J. de Groot and G. M. Gallatin, "Three-dimensional imaging coherent laser radar array," Opt. Eng. 28, 456-460 (1989).
  18. J. H. Churnside, "Signal-to-noise in a backscatter-modulated Doppler velocimeter," Appl. Opt. 23, 2097-2106 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C.-H. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Injection Locking of VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1386-1393 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Luecke, G. Hergenhan, U. Brauch, M. Scholl, A. Giesen, H. Opower, and H. Huegel, "Autostable injectionlocking of a 4×4 VCSEL-array with on chip master laser," in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette and L. Chun, eds., Proc. SPIE 3946, 240-245 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Y. Law and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of optical feedback on static and dynamic characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Sel Top Quantum Electron. 3, 353-358 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Fujiwara, Y. Takiguchi, and J. Ohtsubo, "Observation of low-frequency fluctuations in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 896-898 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Vicente, J. Mulet, C. R. Mirasso, and M. Sciamanna, "Bistable polarization switching in mutually coupled Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," Opt. Lett. 31, 996-998 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2003

N. Fujiwara, Y. Takiguchi, and J. Ohtsubo, "Observation of low-frequency fluctuations in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 896-898 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Injection Locking of VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1386-1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Y. Law and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of optical feedback on static and dynamic characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Sel Top Quantum Electron. 3, 353-358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Donati, L. Falzoni, and S. Merlo, "PC-interfaced, compact laser-diode feedback interferometer for displacement measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 942-944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Taylor and Q. Yang, "Optimization of the operating point of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 1441-1449 (1996).

1994

1989

P. de Groot, G. Gallatin, G. Gardopee, and R. Dixon, "Laser feedback metrology of optical systems," Appl. Opt. 28, 2462-2464 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. de Groot and G. M. Gallatin, "Three-dimensional imaging coherent laser radar array," Opt. Eng. 28, 456-460 (1989).

1984

1981

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Katz, S. Margalit, C. Harder, D. Wilt, and A. Yariv, "Intrinsic electrical equivalent circuit of a laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 4-7 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-55 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

J. Y. Law and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of optical feedback on static and dynamic characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Sel Top Quantum Electron. 3, 353-358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baque, J. L.

Bosch, T.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bozzi-Pietra, S.

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

C.-H. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Injection Locking of VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1386-1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C.-H. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Injection Locking of VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1386-1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

C.-H. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Injection Locking of VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1386-1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

de Groot, P.

de Groot, P. J.

P. J. de Groot and G. M. Gallatin, "Three-dimensional imaging coherent laser radar array," Opt. Eng. 28, 456-460 (1989).

Dixon, R.

Donati, S.

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Donati, L. Falzoni, and S. Merlo, "PC-interfaced, compact laser-diode feedback interferometer for displacement measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 942-944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Falzoni, L.

S. Donati, L. Falzoni, and S. Merlo, "PC-interfaced, compact laser-diode feedback interferometer for displacement measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 942-944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, N.

Gallatin, G.

Gallatin, G. M.

P. J. de Groot and G. M. Gallatin, "Three-dimensional imaging coherent laser radar array," Opt. Eng. 28, 456-460 (1989).

Gardopee, G.

Giuliani, G.

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harder, C.

J. Katz, S. Margalit, C. Harder, D. Wilt, and A. Yariv, "Intrinsic electrical equivalent circuit of a laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 4-7 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

Katz, J.

J. Katz, S. Margalit, C. Harder, D. Wilt, and A. Yariv, "Intrinsic electrical equivalent circuit of a laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 4-7 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-55 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-55 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Law, J. Y.

J. Y. Law and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of optical feedback on static and dynamic characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Sel Top Quantum Electron. 3, 353-358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. L.

Margalit, S.

J. Katz, S. Margalit, C. Harder, D. Wilt, and A. Yariv, "Intrinsic electrical equivalent circuit of a laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 4-7 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Merlo, S.

S. Donati, L. Falzoni, and S. Merlo, "PC-interfaced, compact laser-diode feedback interferometer for displacement measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 942-944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mirasso, C. R.

Mitsuhashi, Y.

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mitsutsuka, S.

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J.

Norgia, M.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsubo, J.

Rakic, A. D.

Rea, N.

Sciamanna, M.

Shimada, J.

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, Y.

Taylor, G.

G. Taylor and Q. Yang, "Optimization of the operating point of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 1441-1449 (1996).

Tucker, J. R.

Vicente, R.

Wilson, T.

Wilt, D.

J. Katz, S. Margalit, C. Harder, D. Wilt, and A. Yariv, "Intrinsic electrical equivalent circuit of a laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 4-7 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

G. Taylor and Q. Yang, "Optimization of the operating point of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 1441-1449 (1996).

Yariv, A.

J. Katz, S. Margalit, C. Harder, D. Wilt, and A. Yariv, "Intrinsic electrical equivalent circuit of a laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 4-7 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Zvyagin, A. V.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347-55 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Taylor and Q. Yang, "Optimization of the operating point of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-32, 1441-1449 (1996).

J. Katz, S. Margalit, C. Harder, D. Wilt, and A. Yariv, "Intrinsic electrical equivalent circuit of a laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 4-7 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel Top Quantum Electron.

J. Y. Law and G. P. Agrawal, "Effects of optical feedback on static and dynamic characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Sel Top Quantum Electron. 3, 353-358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C.-H. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Injection Locking of VCSELs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1386-1393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

S. Donati, L. Falzoni, and S. Merlo, "PC-interfaced, compact laser-diode feedback interferometer for displacement measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 942-944 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, and T. Bosch, "Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283-294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. Giuliani, S. Bozzi-Pietra, and S. Donati, "Self-mixing laser diode vibrometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. J. de Groot and G. M. Gallatin, "Three-dimensional imaging coherent laser radar array," Opt. Eng. 28, 456-460 (1989).

Opt. Lett.

Other

Emcore Corporation, "Laser Products: Array VCSELs," (2009). URL http : //www.emcore.com/fiber optics/laser components/laser products?pid = 49.

B. Luecke, G. Hergenhan, U. Brauch, M. Scholl, A. Giesen, H. Opower, and H. Huegel, "Autostable injectionlocking of a 4×4 VCSEL-array with on chip master laser," in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette and L. Chun, eds., Proc. SPIE 3946, 240-245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Bosch, C. Bes, L. Scalise, and G. Plantier, "Optical Feedback Interferometry," in Encyclopedia of Sensors, C. A. Grimes and E. C. Dickey, eds., vol. X, pp. 1-20 (American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, CA, 2006).

D. M. Kane and K. A. Shore, eds., Unlocking Dynamical Diversity: Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Lasers (John Wiley, Chichester, 2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Petermann, Laser diode modulation and noise, Advances in Optoelectronics (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1991).

Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, P. Rio, J. Tucker, and A. Rakic, "Displacement and distance measurement using the change in junction voltage across a laser diode due to the self-mixing effect," in Photonics: Design, Technology, and Packaging II, D. Abbott, Y. S. Kivshar, H. H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and S. Fan, eds., Proc. SPIE 6038, 60381O-1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (4328 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for measuring the velocity distribution on the surface of a rotating disc. The disc rotates in anti-clockwise direction around a horizontal axes and is tilted around the vertical axis by 5° to provide a small velocity component in the direction of the laser beam (θ = 85°).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Self-mixing Doppler signal (blue) with fitted curves (red) used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio; SNR = 30 dB. (b) top-view of the system; tilt of the disc θ = 85° is indicated. (c) side-view of the system; α is the angle the VCSEL beam makes with the optic axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Plot of the measured Doppler frequencies (circles) and calculated values (stars) on the vertical diameter of the disc, (b) Single-frame excerpt from video recording of the experimental setup showing the VCSEL beams on the surface of the rotating disk (Media 1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distribution of velocity on the rotating disc; rotation in anti-clockwise direction at a speed of 27.9 rpm. (a) The calculated contour plot of the velocity distribution on the disc; (b) Calculated Doppler signal distribution assuming all the laser beams are parallel to each other; (c) Calculated and (d) measured Doppler signal distribution obtained using the fanning out geometry explained in the text; (e) and (f) the velocity distributions recovered from the calculated and experimental values respectively. The agreement is strikingly good

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f D = ( k sc k inc ) · ν 2 π
f D = 2 ν cos θ λ
ν = ωr
ν k sc ( x , y ) = ω y cos θ cos α x sin θ sin α sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ cos 2 θ cos 2 α

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