Abstract

We designed and fabricated a four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on silicon photonic wire waveguide controlled through thermo-optic effect. The effective footprint of the device is about 1000×500 μm2. The minimum insertion loss is about 10.7 dB and the tuning bandwidth about 17 nm. The average tuning power efficiency is about 6.187 mW/nm and the tuning speed about 24.4 kHz. The thermo-optic polarization-rotation effect is firstly reported in this paper.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Minming Geng, Lianxi Jia, Lei Zhang, Lin Yang, Ping Chen, Tong Wang, and Yuliang Liu, "Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide: erratum," Opt. Express 17, 18209-18210 (2009)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-20-18209

References

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2008 (8)

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, F. Gan, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, and H. I. Smith, “Reconfigurable silicon photonic circuits for telecommunication applications”, Proc. SPIE 6872, 68720Z-1–12 (2008).

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, M. J. Interrante, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, R. Sirdeshmukh, E. J. Sprogis, S. M. Sri-Jayantha, A. M. Stephens, A. W. Topol, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “Three dimensional silicon integration”, IBM J. Res. & Dev. 52, 553–569, (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. Y. Ni, Z. P. Wang, and Y. J. Chen, “A compact and low power consumption optical switch based on microrings”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1021–1023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, S. Park, and G. Kim, “Multichannel silicon WDM ring filters fabricated with DUV lithography”, Opt. Commun. 281, 4302–4306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. N. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks”, Nature Photonics 2, 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Geng, L. X. Jia, L. Zhang, Y.L. Liu, L. Yang, and F. Li, “Design and fabrication of polarization-independent micro-ring resonators”, Chin. Phys. Lett. 25, 1333–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu and A. W. Poon, “Silicon cross-connect filters using microring resonator coupled multimode-interference-based waveguide crossings”,Opt. Express 16, 8649–8657 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xiao, B. Juswardy, and K. Alameh, “Novel broadband reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer employing custom fiber arrays and Opto-VLSI processors”, Opt. Express 16, 11703–11708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

S. J. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. H. Qi, “Multiple-channel silicon micro-resonator based filters for WDM applications”, Opt. Express 15, 7489–7498 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on chip optical interconnects”, Opt. Express,  15, 11934–11941 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides”, Opt. Lett. 32, 2801–2803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. H. Qi, “A highly compact third-order silicon microring add-drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion”, Opt. Express 15, 14765–14771 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit”, Nature Photonics 1, 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “1×4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators rabricated on silicon substrate”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704–706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Nakamura, Y. Urino, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Silicon photonic-wire waveguide devices”, Proc. SPIE 6477, 647709-1–9 (2007).

2006 (3)

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact optical buffers on a silicon chip”, Nature Photonics 1, 65–71 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Schwelb, “Crosstalk and bandwidth of lossy microring add/drop multiplexers”, Opt. Commun. 265, 175–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (8)

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator”, Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lipson, “Switching and modulating light on silicon”, Proc. SPIE 5730, 102–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  17, 2358–2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, D. van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator nanophotonics”, Proc. SPIE 5956, 59560R-1–15, (2005)

S. J. Emelett and R. A. Soref, “Synthesis of dual-microring-resonator crossconnect filters”, Opt. Express 13, 4439–4456 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Preble, Q. F. Xu, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip”, Opt. Lett. 30, 2891–2893 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, “Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides”, Opt. Express 12,90–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system”, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

H. Jia and K. Yasumot, “S-matrix solution of electromagnetic scattering from periodic arrays of metallic cylinders with arbitrary cross section”, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 3, 41–44 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, W. L. Chen, and Y. J. Chen, “A characteristic matrix approach for analyzing resonant ring lattice devices”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 458–460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Yang, Y. L. Liu, Y. Cheng, W. Wang, and Q. M. Wang, “Fabrication of thermooptic variable optical attenuators based on multimode interference coupler principle”, Opt. Eng. Lett. 42, 606–607 (2003).

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, B. Luyssaert, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Large-scale production techniques for photonic nanostructures”, Proc. SPIE 5335, 101–112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chen, Z. H. Zhu, Y. J. Chen, J. Sun, B. Grek, and K. Schmidt, “Monolithically integrated 32 four-channel client reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer on planar lightwave circuit”, IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 15, 1413–1415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Melloni and M. Martinelli, “Synthesis of direct-coupled-resonators bandpass filters for WDM systems”, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 296–303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres”, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction”, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888–1890 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tran, W. D. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, and K. Song, “Reconfigurable multichannel optical add-drop multiplexers incorporating eight-port optical circulators and fiber Bragg gratings”, IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 13, 1100–1102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. Pu,, L. Lin, E. Goldstein, and R. Tkach, “Client-configurable eight-channel optical add/drop multiplexer using micromachining technology”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1665–1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P. P. Absil, “Filter synthesis for periodically coupled microring resonators”, Opt. Lett. 25, 344–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

S. C. Hagness, D. Rafizadeh, S. T. Ho, and A. Taflove, “FDTD microcavity simulations: design and experimental realization of waveguide-coupled single-mode ring and whispering-gallery-mode disk resonators”, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2154–2165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters”, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abakoumov, D.

P. Evans, G. Baxter, H. Zhou, D. Abakoumov, S. Poole, and S. Frisken, “LCOS-based WSS with true integrated channel monitor for signal quality monitoring applications in ROADMS”, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWC3, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2008-OWC3.

Absil, P. P.

Alameh, K.

Andry, P. S.

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S. J. Chang, C. Y. Ni, Z. P. Wang, and Y. J. Chen, “A compact and low power consumption optical switch based on microrings”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1021–1023 (2008).
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Dahlem, M. S.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, F. Gan, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, and H. I. Smith, “Reconfigurable silicon photonic circuits for telecommunication applications”, Proc. SPIE 6872, 68720Z-1–12 (2008).

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Maximizing the thermo-optic tuning range of silicon photonic structures”, in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Photonics in Switching (San Francisco, CA, 2007), pp. 67–68.

Dang, B.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, M. J. Interrante, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, R. Sirdeshmukh, E. J. Sprogis, S. M. Sri-Jayantha, A. M. Stephens, A. W. Topol, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “Three dimensional silicon integration”, IBM J. Res. & Dev. 52, 553–569, (2008).
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W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, B. Luyssaert, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Large-scale production techniques for photonic nanostructures”, Proc. SPIE 5335, 101–112 (2003).
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M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–321 (2005).
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M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) with full add and drop path cross connect”, in Conference on Integrated Photonics Research, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper IThA2, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=IPR-2004-IThA2.

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P. Evans, G. Baxter, H. Zhou, D. Abakoumov, S. Poole, and S. Frisken, “LCOS-based WSS with true integrated channel monitor for signal quality monitoring applications in ROADMS”, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OWC3, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2008-OWC3.

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A. Cabas, M. Di Muri, S. Doneda, P. Galli, S. Ghidini, F. Giacometti, S. Lorenzotti, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Romagnoli, S. Sardo, L. Socci, T. Tomasi, G. Zuliani, M. Gentili, G. Grasso, and M. Romagnoli, “Silicon on insulator based integrated tunable add & drop filter for metro DWDM networks”, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Rome, Italy, 2007), pp. 236–239.
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T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, F. Gan, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, and H. I. Smith, “Reconfigurable silicon photonic circuits for telecommunication applications”, Proc. SPIE 6872, 68720Z-1–12 (2008).

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Maximizing the thermo-optic tuning range of silicon photonic structures”, in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Photonics in Switching (San Francisco, CA, 2007), pp. 67–68.

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E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  17, 2358–2360 (2005).
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A. Cabas, M. Di Muri, S. Doneda, P. Galli, S. Ghidini, F. Giacometti, S. Lorenzotti, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Romagnoli, S. Sardo, L. Socci, T. Tomasi, G. Zuliani, M. Gentili, G. Grasso, and M. Romagnoli, “Silicon on insulator based integrated tunable add & drop filter for metro DWDM networks”, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Rome, Italy, 2007), pp. 236–239.
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A. Cabas, M. Di Muri, S. Doneda, P. Galli, S. Ghidini, F. Giacometti, S. Lorenzotti, G. Mutinati, A. Nottola, M. Romagnoli, S. Sardo, L. Socci, T. Tomasi, G. Zuliani, M. Gentili, G. Grasso, and M. Romagnoli, “Silicon on insulator based integrated tunable add & drop filter for metro DWDM networks”, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Rome, Italy, 2007), pp. 236–239.
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M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, and J. Soole, “Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 313–321 (2005).
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M. P. Earnshaw, A. Griffin, C. Bolle, and J. B. D. Soole, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) with integrated sub-band optical cross-connect”, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper OTuD2, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2005-OTuD2.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) with full add and drop path cross connect”, in Conference on Integrated Photonics Research, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper IThA2, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=IPR-2004-IThA2.

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T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, F. Gan, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, and H. I. Smith, “Reconfigurable silicon photonic circuits for telecommunication applications”, Proc. SPIE 6872, 68720Z-1–12 (2008).

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Maximizing the thermo-optic tuning range of silicon photonic structures”, in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Photonics in Switching (San Francisco, CA, 2007), pp. 67–68.

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J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, M. J. Interrante, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, R. Sirdeshmukh, E. J. Sprogis, S. M. Sri-Jayantha, A. M. Stephens, A. W. Topol, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “Three dimensional silicon integration”, IBM J. Res. & Dev. 52, 553–569, (2008).
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T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres”, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
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W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. van Campenhout, B. Luyssaert, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Large-scale production techniques for photonic nanostructures”, Proc. SPIE 5335, 101–112 (2003).
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Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. N. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks”, Nature Photonics 2, 242–246 (2008).
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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system”, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

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Other (10)

M. Muha, B. Chiang, and R. Schleicher, “MEMS based channelized ROADM platform”, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JthA24, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=NFOEC-2008-JThA24.

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T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Fabrication and evaluation of submicron-square Si wire waveguides with spot-size converters”, in Proceedings of IEEE Annual Meeting of Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 287–288.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic structure used in the calculation of the coupling coefficient.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Coupling coefficient of the MRR with the radius of 5 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relationship between the performance of the add-drop MRR and its coupling coefficient: (a) schematic structure of the add-drop MRR; (b) dependence of the 3-dB bandwidth at the drop port on k 2; (c), (d) and (e) dependence of the normalized amplitude at the drop port and the through port on k 2 when the MRR is on-resonant.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic structure of the four-channel ROADM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Optical field distribution of the PWW with 500-nm-thick cladding for the TM (upper) and TE (lower) mode; (b) ERI of the fundamental mode of the PWW surrounded by SL and metal; (c) optical field distribution of the waveguide with 500-nm-thick SL for the TM (upper) and TE (lower) mode; (d) optical field distribution of the waveguide with 1200-nm-thick SL for the TM (upper) and TE (lower) mode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Micrographs of the fabricated ROADM: (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture of the SSC; (b) SEM picture of the end face of the SSC; (c) SEM picture of the add-drop MRR; (d) SEM picture of the heater pattern; (e) microscope picture of the whole structure of the ROADM.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Response spectra of the add-drop MRRs with different gaps measured at their drop ports.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison between the experimental results and the simulation results, (a) is for the TE mode and (b) for the TM mode.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Response spectra of “input to drops”. Black curve shows the response spectra at the power consumption of 0 mW, red curve at 23.5 mW, green curve at 48.3 mW, blue curve at 74.3 mW and cyan curve at 103.9 mW.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Response spectra of “input to output”. Black curve shows the response spectra at the power consumption of 0 mW, red curve at 23.5 mW, green curve at 48.3 mW, blue curve at 74.3 mW and cyan curve at 103.9 mW.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Response spectra of “adds to output”. Black curve shows the response spectra at the power consumption of 0 mW, red curve at 23.5 mW, green curve at 48.3 mW, blue curve at 74.3 mW and cyan curve at 103.9 mW.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Response spectra of “adds to drops”. Black curve shows the response spectra at the power consumption of 0 mW, red curve at 23.5 mW, green curve at 48.3 mW, blue curve at 74.3 mW and cyan curve at 103.9 mW.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Time response of the ROADM.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Phenomena of the thermo-optic polarization-rotation effect. Black curve shows the response spectra at the voltage of 1.2V, red curve at 1.6V and green curve at 2.1V.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Main performance of the ROADM in different configurations.

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