Abstract

Discontinuous freeform lens based secondary optics are essential to LED illumination systems. Surface roughness and smooth transition between two discrete sub-surfaces are two of the most common manufacturing defects existing in discontinuous freeform lenses. The effects of these two manufacturing defects on the optical performance of two discontinuous freeform lenses were investigated by comparing the experimental results with the numerical simulation results based on Monte Carlo ray trace method. The results demonstrated that manufacturing defects induced surface roughness had small effect on the light output efficiency and the shape of light pattern of the PMMA lens but significantly affected the uniformity of light pattern, which declined from 0.644 to 0.313. The smooth transition surfaces with deviation angle more than 60 degrees existing in the BK7 glass lens, not only reduced the uniformity of light pattern, but also reduced the light output efficiency from 96.9% to 91.0% and heavily deformed the shape of the light pattern. Comparing with the surface roughness, the smooth transition surface had a much more adverse effect on the optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses. Three methods were suggested to improve the illumination performance according to the analysis and discussion.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. Wang, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, B. Zhou, Z. Y. Gan, and S. Liu, "Optical analysis of an 80-W light-emitting-diode street lamp," Opt. Eng. 47, 013002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, "Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination," Opt. Express 16, 12958-12966 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

L. Wang, K. Y. Qian, and Y. Luo, "Discontinuous free-form lens design for prescribed irradiance," Appl. Opt. 46, 3716-3723 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bierhuizen, M. Krames, G. Harbers, and G. Weijers, "Performance and trends of high power light emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 6669, 66690B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

W. A. Parkyn, "Segmented illumination lenses for steplighting and wall-washing," Proc. SPIE 3779, 363-370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benítez, P.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bierhuizen, S.

S. Bierhuizen, M. Krames, G. Harbers, and G. Weijers, "Performance and trends of high power light emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 6669, 66690B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blen, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaves, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Dross, O.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Falicoff, W.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Z. Y.

K. Wang, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, B. Zhou, Z. Y. Gan, and S. Liu, "Optical analysis of an 80-W light-emitting-diode street lamp," Opt. Eng. 47, 013002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P. F.

Harbers, G.

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Bierhuizen, M. Krames, G. Harbers, and G. Weijers, "Performance and trends of high power light emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 6669, 66690B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hernández, M.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huand, S. M.

Krames, M.

S. Bierhuizen, M. Krames, G. Harbers, and G. Weijers, "Performance and trends of high power light emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 6669, 66690B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. L.

Liu, S.

K. Wang, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, B. Zhou, Z. Y. Gan, and S. Liu, "Optical analysis of an 80-W light-emitting-diode street lamp," Opt. Eng. 47, 013002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, Z. Y.

K. Wang, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, B. Zhou, Z. Y. Gan, and S. Liu, "Optical analysis of an 80-W light-emitting-diode street lamp," Opt. Eng. 47, 013002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

K. Wang, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, B. Zhou, Z. Y. Gan, and S. Liu, "Optical analysis of an 80-W light-emitting-diode street lamp," Opt. Eng. 47, 013002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Ma, S. H.

Mach, R. M.

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minano, J. C.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohedano, R.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muschaweck, J.

Parkyn, W. A.

W. A. Parkyn, "Segmented illumination lenses for steplighting and wall-washing," Proc. SPIE 3779, 363-370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qian, K. Y.

Ries, H.

Shchekin, O. B.

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Wang, K.

K. Wang, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, B. Zhou, Z. Y. Gan, and S. Liu, "Optical analysis of an 80-W light-emitting-diode street lamp," Opt. Eng. 47, 013002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Weijers, G.

S. Bierhuizen, M. Krames, G. Harbers, and G. Weijers, "Performance and trends of high power light emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 6669, 66690B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. R.

Zhou, B.

K. Wang, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, B. Zhou, Z. Y. Gan, and S. Liu, "Optical analysis of an 80-W light-emitting-diode street lamp," Opt. Eng. 47, 013002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Display Technol. (1)

Q1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, "Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions," Opt. Eng. 43, 1489-1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, B. Zhou, Z. Y. Gan, and S. Liu, "Optical analysis of an 80-W light-emitting-diode street lamp," Opt. Eng. 47, 013002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Bierhuizen, M. Krames, G. Harbers, and G. Weijers, "Performance and trends of high power light emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 6669, 66690B (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Parkyn, "Segmented illumination lenses for steplighting and wall-washing," Proc. SPIE 3779, 363-370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Wang, S. Liu, X. B. Luo, Z. Y. Liu, and F. Chen, "Optical Analysis of A 3W Light-Emitting Diode (LED) MR16 Lamp," in Proceedings of 9th ICEPT & HDP, China (2008).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, "Optical design for LED lighting," presented at 5th China International Forum on Solid State Lighting, China, 343-348 (2008).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a modified discontinuous freeform lens design method: (a) establish energy mapping between light source and target; (b) calculate point cloud of the lens surface; and (c) construct the lens surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) A numerical model for LED module with PMMA discontinuous freeform lens and (b) its illumination performance in simulation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) A numerical model for LED module with BK7 optical glass discontinuous freeform lens and (b) its illumination performance in simulation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The PMMA discontinuous freeform lens and (b) the BK7 optical glass discontinuous freeform lens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Microphotograph of the PMMA lens and (b) numerical optical model of the PMMA lens.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Micrographs of different part of the PMMA discontinuous freeform lens.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Microphotograph of the BK7 glass lens, (b) numerical optical model of the BK7 glass lens, and (c) partially enlarged view of the BK7 glass lens.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The LED discontinuous freeform lenses test modules.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Light pattern of the PMMA lens at 70 centimeters away from LED.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Light pattern of the BK7 optical glass lens at 70 centimeters away from LED.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Schematic of lights propagation at smooth and (b) roughness optical surface.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) Schematic of lights propagation at the sharp transition surface and (b) the smooth transition surface.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental results.

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