Abstract

We demonstrated a continuous viewing angle controllable liquid crystal display (LCD) adopting a thermally variable retardation layer (TVRL) using nematic liquid crystal with transparent electric-heating lines to control temperature. The simulated and experimental results of the proposed LCD show continuous and symmetric viewing angle characteristics by tuning the retardation of TVRL using Joule heating.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-Viewing-Angle Display Mode Using Bend-Alignment Liquid Crystal Cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Two-Domain Hybrid-Aligned Nematic Cell Fabricated by Ion Beam Treatment of Vertical Alignment Layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875-1878 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. S. Gwag, K. Shon, Y.-K. Kim, and J.-H. Kim, "Electro-optical characteristics of a chiral hybrid in-plane switching liquid crystal mode for high brightness," Opt. Express 16, 12220-12226 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Lu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, "Wide-view and single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display using slit-induced multidomain structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Gwag, J. Park, Y.-J. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, "Electro-optical characteristics of reflective liquid crystal mode using pi-cell for low power operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, H. J. Lee, and M. H. Yi, "Single-mode transflective liquid crystal display tailored for wide-band single gamma curve," Opt. Express 16, 18102-18108 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual Light Source for Backlight Systems for Smart Viewing-Adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable Viewing -Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability," Opt. Express 16, 2663-2668 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, "Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, "Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 896-901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual Light Source for Backlight Systems for Smart Viewing-Adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable Viewing -Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Two-Domain Hybrid-Aligned Nematic Cell Fabricated by Ion Beam Treatment of Vertical Alignment Layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875-1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, "Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, "Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-Viewing-Angle Display Mode Using Bend-Alignment Liquid Crystal Cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M.

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable Viewing -Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-M.

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual Light Source for Backlight Systems for Smart Viewing-Adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chien, K.-W.

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual Light Source for Backlight Systems for Smart Viewing-Adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. C.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, J.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, "Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

R. Lu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, "Wide-view and single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display using slit-induced multidomain structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

J. S. Gwag, K. Shon, Y.-K. Kim, and J.-H. Kim, "Electro-optical characteristics of a chiral hybrid in-plane switching liquid crystal mode for high brightness," Opt. Express 16, 12220-12226 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Park, Y.-J. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, "Electro-optical characteristics of reflective liquid crystal mode using pi-cell for low power operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, J.-H. Kim, H. J. Lee, and M. H. Yi, "Single-mode transflective liquid crystal display tailored for wide-band single gamma curve," Opt. Express 16, 18102-18108 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability," Opt. Express 16, 2663-2668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Two-Domain Hybrid-Aligned Nematic Cell Fabricated by Ion Beam Treatment of Vertical Alignment Layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875-1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirama, N.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. -J.

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual Light Source for Backlight Systems for Smart Viewing-Adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, E.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanetsuna, T.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability," Opt. Express 16, 2663-2668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Two-Domain Hybrid-Aligned Nematic Cell Fabricated by Ion Beam Treatment of Vertical Alignment Layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875-1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

Kim, M.-E.

Kim, Y.-K.

Kimura, S.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koehler-Beran, K. R.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurogi, S.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, Y.-H.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

Lee, J. L.

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Two-Domain Hybrid-Aligned Nematic Cell Fabricated by Ion Beam Treatment of Vertical Alignment Layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875-1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Li, J.

J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, "Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, "Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. J.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, R.

R. Lu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, "Wide-view and single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display using slit-induced multidomain structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-Viewing-Angle Display Mode Using Bend-Alignment Liquid Crystal Cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okada, N.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. S. Gwag, J. Park, Y.-J. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, "Electro-optical characteristics of reflective liquid crystal mode using pi-cell for low power operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Two-Domain Hybrid-Aligned Nematic Cell Fabricated by Ion Beam Treatment of Vertical Alignment Layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875-1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J. M.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, S.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, M.

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable Viewing -Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shon, K.

Takatoh, K.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-Viewing-Angle Display Mode Using Bend-Alignment Liquid Crystal Cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uemura, K.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

R. Lu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, "Wide-view and single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display using slit-induced multidomain structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, "Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, "Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-Viewing-Angle Display Mode Using Bend-Alignment Liquid Crystal Cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yi, M. H.

Yokoyama, H.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoneya, M.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T. H.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J. S. Gwag, Y.-J. Lee, M.-E. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Viewing angle control mode using nematic bistability," Opt. Express 16, 2663-2668 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Gwag, K.-H. Park, J. L. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, "Two-Domain Hybrid-Aligned Nematic Cell Fabricated by Ion Beam Treatment of Vertical Alignment Layer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1875-1878 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Lu, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, "Wide-view and single cell gap transflective liquid crystal display using slit-induced multidomain structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Park, Y.-J. Lee, and J.-H. Kim, "Electro-optical characteristics of reflective liquid crystal mode using pi-cell for low power operation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, "Temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 19-24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, "Extended Cauchy equations for the refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 896-901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-Viewing-Angle Display Mode Using Bend-Alignment Liquid Crystal Cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (3)

Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (3)

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual Light Source for Backlight Systems for Smart Viewing-Adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New Peeping Prevention Technology to Control Viewing Angle Properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable Viewing -Angle Displays using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed viewing angle-tunable LCD structure: (a) narrow viewing angle using the nematic phase of TVRL; (b) wide viewing angle using

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temperature-dependent refractive indices and birefringence of E7 LC at wavelength λ=560 nm. Squares and circles represent experimental data, and solid lines are fittings using Wu’s model.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated results of viewing angle depending on the birefringence of TVRL determined by temperature in the proposed viewing angle controllable FFS mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured results of viewing angle according to the temperature of TVRL in the proposed viewing angle controllable FFS mode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photo-images in the dark state of a FFS-TVRL cell; (a) in front view when TVRL is in the nematic phase (20°C), (b) in front view when TVRL is in the isotropic phase (60°C), (c) in side view when TVRL is in the nematic phase (20°C), (d) in side view when TVRL is in the isotropic phase (60°C).

Equations (2)

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n e a bT + 2 3 Δ n ( 0 ) ( 1 T / T c ) β ,
n o a bT 1 3 Δ n ( 0 ) ( 1 T / T c ) β ,

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